Sociodemographic characteristics by gender are shown in . As previously reported (Fisher-Hoch et al., 2010
) there were more women participants than men, but there was no difference in age distribution between genders. A higher proportion of women than men were divorced or separated, and more women were born in Mexico. Men were more likely to have graduated from high school and to have family income greater than $20,000. Nearly one half of the men were employed full-time compared with less than a quarter of the women, but nearly three quarters of all participants had no health insurance, again more prevalent in women than men.
Sociodemographics by Gender of the CCHC
The association of obesity, diabetes, blood pressure, cholesterol and obesity by gender and by age group is shown in . Overall a greater proportion of men than women were overweight, having BMI values in the 25 to 29 range (36.9% versus 30.2%, p<.001). A significantly higher proportion of women than men were obese (i.e. BMI ≥ 30). However, when comparing at category levels significant bivariate differences were only observed for Categories II and III (Category II 12.6% vs. 10.6%; Category III 9.7% vs. 5.7%). By age group, there were a greater proportion of women in the obese categories, with one exception. In the 30 to 39 age group, men had substantially higher proportion of subjects who were Category II obese (21.4% vs. 11.2%). Still, there were a greater proportion of men who were overweight in the 30 to 39, 40 to 49, 50 to 59 and 60 to 69 age groups.
Age and gender-specific self-reported conditions, undiagnosed conditions and biomarkers for the CCHC study1
There were no significant differences between men and women in diagnosed diabetes; however, men had significantly higher proportion of undiagnosed diabetes (6.2% vs. 2.4%) and after making the adjustment for the undiagnosed, a higher proportion of total diabetes (20.4% vs. 15.8%). illustrates the trends in total diabetes and undiagnosed diabetes for men and women by age group. For both men and women there is a low prevalence of total diabetes and undiagnosed for subjects under the age of 30. However, the proportion of total diabetes is much larger for men than for women. This trend is similar for each age group until the 70 years or greater age group where a greater percentage of women than men are represented in total diabetes. The greatest gender differences for undiagnosed diabetes appears to be within the 40 to 49, 50 to 59, and 60 to 69 age groups.
Total diabetes and undiagnosed diabetes in men and women by age group in the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort. Solid lines=total diabetes, dotted lines=undiagnosed diabetes. Brown lines=men, blue lines=women.
A significantly lower proportion of men reported having been diagnosed with hypertension (20.1% vs. 26.2%), however there was no significant difference in undiagnosed hypertension between men and women. Similarly, there were no significant differences between women and men in self-reported high cholesterol. There was, however, a significantly higher proportion of men than women who had serum cholesterol levels of 200 mg/dL or greater (36.9% vs. 32.9%). Overall, a lower percentage of men than women had high HDL levels (≥60 mg/dL, 4.3% versus 14.3%, p<.001) but a higher proportion had elevated LDL levels of ≥130 mg/dL (26.1% vs. 22.6%, p<.01). illustrates differences between men and women with self-reported and measured cholesterol levels ≥200 mg/dL by age. There is an impressive discrepancy between self-reported and measured serum total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL among men, not seen among women, most notably below the age of 50. Starting around middle age the gap between self-reported and measured serum cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL narrows dramatically.
Self-reported and undiagnosed elevated plasma cholesterol in men and women by age group in the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort. Solid lines=self-reported elevated cholesterol, dotted lines=undiagnosed elevated cholesterol ≥200mg/dL.
presents odds ratios from logistic regression for outcomes with significant bivariate relationships with gender from (i.e. BMI, self-reported hypertension, undiagnosed diabetes, total diabetes, serum cholesterol 200 or more, HDL 60 or greater, LDL 130 or greater, and BMI). In model 1 men had a significantly lower odds of having BMI values of 40 or above (OR=.565, (95% C.I. .385, .813)), but significantly higher odds of BMI values in the 25 to 29 range (OR=1.35, (95% C.I. 1.04, 1.75)). Men had lower odds of self-reported hypertension (OR =.709 (95% C.I. .543, .926)), however, men significantly higher odds of having undiagnosed diabetes than women (OR= 2.65, (95% C.I. 1.59, 4.43)) and higher odds of total diabetes (OR=1.37, (95% C.I. 1.04, 1.79)). In addition men had a lower odds of HDL level greater than or equal to 60 (OR=.433, (95% C.I. 263, 714)).
Odds ratios from logistic regression for outcomes with significant bivariate relationships with gender for the CCHC study.
The age and gender interaction model in revealed significant effects for BMI, self-reported hypertension, undiagnosed diabetes, total diabetes, serum cholesterol 200 mg/dL or greater, HDL and LDL. The odds for self-reported hypertension were significantly higher for men in age groups 40 to 49 (OR=3.09), 50 to 59 (OR= 10.41) , 60 to 69 (OR= 15.08) and 70 and older (OR=5.50). Similarly, the odds of undiagnosed diabetes were significantly greater for men at ages 40 to 49 (OR=8.86), 50 to 59 (OR=11.84) and 60 to 69 (OR=8.22). For both total diabetes and serum cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dL men had significantly higher odds at ages 30 to 39 (total diabetes OR=3.37, serum cholesterol OR=4.01), 40 to 49 (total diabetes OR=6.45, serum cholesterol OR=6.31), 50 to 59 (total diabetes OR=13.14, serum cholesterol OR=5.12) and 60 to 69 (total diabetes OR=11.69, serum cholesterol OR=4.50). Men had significantly lower odds of HDL ≥ 60mg/dL at ages 18 to 29 (OR=.09) and 30 to 39 (OR=.27). Men had higher odds of LDL ≥ 130mg/dL at age groups 30 to 39 (OR=3.24), 40 to 49 (OR=3.37) and 50 to 59 (OR=2.48). Interaction effects for BMI were less straight forward. Men between the ages of 30 and 39 were more likely to be of normal weight compared with women in the same age group (OR= 3.33). Men aged 60 to 69 were more likely to be in the overweight range compared with their female peers (OR= 2.78).