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Logo of bmcpsycBioMed Centralsearchsubmit a manuscriptregisterthis articleBMC Psychiatry
 
BMC Psychiatry. 2011; 11: 57.
Published online Apr 11, 2011. doi:  10.1186/1471-244X-11-57
PMCID: PMC3082292
The impact of ADHD and conduct disorder in childhood on adult delinquency: A 30 years follow-up study using official crime records
Marianne Mordre,corresponding author1 Berit Groholt,2 Ellen Kjelsberg,3 Berit Sandstad,4 and Anne Margrethe Myhre1,2
1Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Norway
2Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway
3Centre for Forensic Psychiatry, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Norway
4Unit of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Oslo University Hospital, Norway
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
Marianne Mordre: marianne.mordre/at/medisin.uio.no; Berit Groholt: berit.groholt/at/medisin.uio.no; Ellen Kjelsberg: ellen.kjelsberg/at/kompetanse-senteret.no; Berit Sandstad: berit.sandstad/at/oslo-universitetssykehus.no; Anne Margrethe Myhre: a.m.myhre/at/medisin.uio.no
Received November 2, 2010; Accepted April 11, 2011.
Abstract
Background
Few longitudinal studies have explored lifetime criminality in adults with a childhood history of severe mental disorders. In the present study, we wanted to explore the association between adult delinquency and several different childhood diagnoses in an in-patient population. Of special interest was the impact of disturbance of activity and attention (ADHD) and mixed disorder of conduct and emotions on later delinquency, as these disorders have been variously associated with delinquent development.
Methods
Former Norwegian child psychiatric in-patients (n = 541) were followed up 19-41 years after hospitalization by record linkage to the National Register of Criminality. On the basis of the hospital records, the patients were re-diagnosed according to ICD-10. The association between diagnoses and other baseline factors and later delinquency were investigated using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses.
Results
At follow-up, 24% of the participants had been convicted of criminal activity.
In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, conduct disorder (RR = 2.0, 95%CI = 1.2-3.4) and hyperkinetic conduct disorder (RR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.6-4.4) significantly increased the risk of future criminal behaviour. Pervasive developmental disorder (RR = 0.4, 95%CI = 0.2-0.9) and mental retardation (RR = 0.4, 95%CI = 0.3-0.8) reduced the risk for a criminal act. Male gender (RR = 3.6, 95%CI = 2.1-6.1) and chronic family difficulties (RR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.5) both predicted future criminality.
Conclusions
Conduct disorder in childhood was highly associated with later delinquency both alone or in combination with hyperactivity, but less associated when combined with an emotional disorder. ADHD in childhood was no more associated with later delinquency than the rest of the disorders in the study population. Our finding strengthens the assumption that there is no direct association between ADHD and criminality.
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