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From:
Published online 2011 February 14. doi: 10.1093/bja/aer010

Table 2

Child anxiety as determined by adherence to mask practise and use of distraction in holding. Statistical analyses: one-way anova. Group means, standard deviations, and P-values are presented. Effect size (Cohen's d) was calculated as was the 95% confidence interval for the difference between the population means. Adherence to distraction use was defined as following instructions to plan and use two distractions with child in holding area; non-adherence was used for fewer than two distractions or no distraction use. Adherence to mask practise was defined as completing the full shaping and exposure exercise with the anaesthesia mask with the child; non-adherence was incomplete or no mask practise

GroupAnxiety at holdingsdP-value95% confidence intervalCohen's dAnxiety at mask introsdP-value95% confidence intervalCohen's d
Adherence to distraction in holding (n=38)30.27.80.031.1–11.80.4938.218.30.013.5–20.90.58
Non-adherence to distraction in holding (n=52)36.616.950.423.4
Adherence to mask practise (n=78)32.812.3NS−9.3 to 24.80.4142.520.40.023.0–31.60.70
Non-adherence to mask practise (n=10)40.523.659.828.7