1. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Bulletin no. 2577. Washington: BLS; 2005. National Compensation Survey: Employee Benefits in Private Industry in the United States, 2003.
2. U.S. Government Accountability Office. Pub. no. GAO/HEHS-00-05. Washington: GAO; 2000. Mental Health Parity Act: Despite New Federal Standards, Mental Health Benefits Remain Limited.
3. Milbank D. Bush Backs Mental Health Parity. Washington Post; Apr 30, 2002.
4. The DSM-IV separates alcohol use disorders from psychoactive substance use disorders and distinguishes abuse from dependence.
5. Laudicina SS, Pardo K. State Legislative Health Care and Insurance Issues: 1999 Survey of Plans. Washington: Blue Cross Blue Shield Association; 1999.
6. Hanson KW. Public Opinion and the Mental Health Parity Debate: Lessons from the Survey Literature. Psychiatric Services. 1998;49(8):1059–1066. [PubMed]
7. Pear R. Proposals for Mental Health Parity Pit a Father’s Pragmatism against a Son’s Passion. New York Times; Mar 19, 2007.
8. Mental Health Parity Bill Sails through Senate. CongressDaily; Sep 19, 2007.
9. SAMHSA. NSDUH Series H-30, Pub. no. SMA-06-4194. Rockville, Md: SAMHSA; 2006. Results from the 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
10. Coffey RM, et al. Pub. no. SMA-01-3511. Rockville, Md: SAMHSA; 2001. National Estimates of Expenditures for Substance Abuse Treatment, 1997.
11. Mark TL, et al. U.S. Spending for Mental Health and Substance Abuse Treatment, 1991–2001. Health Affairs. 2005;24:w133–w142. (published online 29 March 2005; 10.1377/hlthaff.w5.133)Mark TL, et al. Spending on Mental Health and Substance Abuse Treatment, 1987–1997. Health Affairs. 2000;19(4):108–120. [PubMed]
12. Self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous (not typically reimbursed under private insurance) and tobacco addiction services are not considered in this discussion.
13. Mark, et al. US Spending.
14. SAMHSA. NSDUH Series H-30, Pub. no. SMA-05-4062. Rockville, Md: SAMHSA; 2005. Results from the 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings.
15. Gabel JR, et al. BLS, National Compensation Survey. 2003 Substance Abuse Benefits: Still Limited after All These Years. Health Affairs. 2007;26(4):w474–w482. doi: 10.1377/ hlthaff.26.4.474. published online 7 June 2007. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
16. BLS. Bulletin no. 2176. Washington: BLS; 1983. National Compensation Survey: Employee Benefits in Medium and Large Firms in the United States, 1982.
17. BLS. Bulletin no. 2336. Washington: BLS; 1989. National Compensation Survey: Employee Benefits in Medium and Large Firms in the United States, 1988.
18. BLS. National Compensation Survey. 2003.
19. Gabel, et al. Substance Abuse Benefits.
20. Mark TL, Coffey RM. The Decline in Receipt of Substance Abuse Treatment by the Privately Insured, 1992–2001. Health Affairs. 2004;23(6):157–162. [PubMed] 21. Grant BF, et al. Prevalence and Co-occurrence of Substance Use Disorders and Independent Mood and Anxiety Disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2004;61(8):807–816. [PubMed] 23. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Evidence-Based Health Policy—Lessons from the Global Burden of Disease Study. Science. 1996;274(5288):740–743. [PubMed]
24. See the online bibliography, as in Note 21.
26. Mark TL, et al. Pub. no. SMA-05-3999. Rockville, Md: SAMHSA; 2005. National Estimates of Expenditures for Mental Health and Substance Abuse Treatment, 1991–2001.
27. Gowing L, Ali R, White J. Buprenorphine for the Management of Opioid Withdrawal. Cochrane Database of Systematic Review. 2006;(2):CD002025. [PubMed]Vastag B. In-Office Opiate Treatment: ‘Not a Panacea’: Physicians Slow to Embrace Therapeutic Options. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2003;290(6):731–735. [PubMed] 28. Vastag In-Office Opiate Treatment. Frank RG, Huskamp HA, Pincus HA. Aligning Incentives in the Treatment of Depression in Primary Care with Evidence-Based Practice. Psychiatric Services. 2003;54(5):682–687. [PubMed]
29. See online bibliography, as in Note 21.
31. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Mental Health:A Reportof theSurgeon General. Rockville, Md: DHHS; 1999.
32. Vastag In-Office Opiate Treatment. Frank, et al. Aligning Incentives.
33. SAMHSA. Results from the 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health.
35. Wang PS, et al. Twelve-Month Use of Mental Health Services in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2005;62(6):629–640. [PubMed] 36. McGlynn EA, et al. The Quality of Health Care Delivered to Adults in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine. 2003;348(26):2635–2645. [PubMed]
37. Frank RG, McGuire TG. Economics and Mental Health. In: Culyer AJ, Newhouse JP, editors. Handbook of Health Economics. 1B. Amsterdam: North-Holland; 2000.
38. Manning WG, et al. Effects of Mental Health Insurance: Evidence from the Health Insurance Experiment. Santa Monica, Calif: RAND; 1989. Newhouse JP. the Insurance Experiment Group. Free for All? Lessons from the RAND Health Insurance Experiment. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press; 1993.
39. Mark, Coffey The Decline in Receipt of Substance Abuse Treatment.
40. Sturm R, Zhang W, Schoenbaum M. How Expensive Are Unlimited Substance Abuse Benefits under Managed Care? Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research. 1999;26(2):203–210. [PubMed]
42. Some of these increases were substantial. For example, in one plan, the probability of SA service use increased 0.16 percentage points, a 32 percent increase from pre- to post-parity.
43. Rosenbach M, et al. Pub. no. SMA-03-3822. Rockville, Md: SAMHSA; 2003. Effects of the Vermont Mental Health and Substance Abuse Parity Law.
44. Frank RG, Glazer J, McGuire TG. Measuring Adverse Selection in Managed Health Care. Journalof Health Economics. 2000;19(6):829–854. [PubMed] 45. In the era of managed care, benefit parity may be less able to address selection adverse concerns since health plans can control service use in alternative ways. For a discussion of this issue, see Frank RG, McGuire TG Parity for Mental Health and Substance Abuse Care under Managed Care. Journal ofMental Health Policy and Economics. 1998;1(14):153–159. [PubMed] 46. Harris KM, Sturm R. Adverse Selection and Generosity of Alcohol Treatment Benefits. Inquiry. 2002/03;39(4):413–428. [PubMed]
47. Sturm, et al. How Expensive Are Unlimited Substance Abuse Benefits?