1. Allport GW. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley; 1954. The nature of prejudice. p. 537 p.
2. Tajfel H. Cognitive aspects of prejudice. J Soc Issues. 1969;25:79–97.
3. Tajfel H. Social identity and intergroup behavior. Soc Sci Info. 1974;14:65–93.
4. Bargh JA. The cognitive monster: The case against controllability of automatic stereotype effects. In: Chaiken S, Trope Y, editors. Dual Process Theories in Social Psychology. New York: The Guilford Press; 1999. pp. 361–382.
5. Devine PG. Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1989;56:5–18.
6. Dovidio PG, Evans N, Tyler RP. Racial stereotypes: The content of their cognitive representations. J Exp Soc Psychol. 1986;22:22–37.
7. Fazio RH, Dunton BC. Categorization by race: The impact of automatic and controlled components of racial prejudice. J Exp Soc Psychol. 1997;33:451–470.
8. Gilbert DT, Hixon JG. The trouble of thinking: Activation and application of stereotypic beliefs. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1991;60:509–517.
9. Grant PR, Holmes JG. The integration of implicit personality theory schemas and stereotype images. Soc Psychol Quart. 1981;44:107–115.
10. Hughes EC. Dilemmas and contradictions of status. Am J Sociol. 1945;50:353–359.
11. Sinclair L, Kunda Z. Reactions to a black professional: Motivated inhibition and activation of conflicting stereotypes. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1999;77:885–904. [PubMed] 12. Brown E, Perrett DI. What gives a face its gender? Perception. 1993;22:829–840. [PubMed] 13. Johnson KL, Tassinary LG. Perceiving sex directly and indirectly: Meaning in motion and morphology. Psychol Sci. 2005;16:890–897. [PubMed] 14. Montepare JM, Zebrowitz-McArthur L. Impressions of people created by age-related qualities of their gaits. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1988;55:547–556. [PubMed] 15. Pollick FE, Kay JW, Heim K, Stringer R. Gender recognition from point-light walkers. J Exp Psychol Human. 2005;31:1247–1265. [PubMed] 16. Chaudoir SR, Fisher JD. The disclosure process model: Understanding disclosure decision making and postdisclosure outcomes among people living with a concealable stigmatized identity. Psychol Bull. 2010;136:236–256. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
17. Corrigan P, Matthews A. Stigma and disclosure: Implications for coming out of the closet. J Mental Health. 2003;12:235–248.
18. Griffith KH, Hebl MR. The disclosure dilemma for gay men and lesbians: “Coming out” at work. J Appl Psychol. 2002;87:1191–1199. [PubMed]
19. Gross AE, Green SK, Storck JT, Vanyur JM. Disclosure of sexual orientation and impressions of male and female homosexuals. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 1980;6:307–314.
20. Oswald DL. “Don't ask, don't tell”: The influence of stigma concealing and perceived threat on perceivers' reactions to a gay target. J Appl Soc Psychol. 2007;37:928–947.
21. Ambady N, Hallahan M, Conner B. Accuracy of judgments of sexual orientation from thin slices of behavior. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1999;77:538–547. [PubMed] 22. Johnson KL, Gill S, Reichman V, Tassinary LG. Swagger, sway, and sexuality: Judging Sexual Orientation from body motion and morphology. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2007;93:321–334. [PubMed]
23. Rule NO, Ambady N. Brief exposures: Male sexual orientation is accurately perceived at 50 ms. J Exp Soc Psychol. 2008;44:1100–1105.
24. Rule NO, Ambady N, Hallett KC. Female sexual orientation is perceived accurately, rapidly, and automatically from the face and its features. J Exp Soc Psychol. 2009;45:1245–1251.
25. Rule NO, Macrae CN, Ambady N. Ambiguous group membership is extracted automatically from faces. Psychol Sci. 2009;20:441–443. [PubMed]
26. Bailey JM, Zucker KJ. Childhood sex-typed behavior and sexual orientation: A conceptual analysis and quantitative review. Dev Psychol. 1995;31:43–55.
27. Berenbaum SA, Snyder E. Early hormonal influences on childhood sex-typed activity and playmate preferences: Implications for the development of sexual orientation. Dev Psychol. 1995;31:31–42.
28. Rieger G, Linsenmeier JAW, Gygas L, Bailey JM. Sexual orientation and childhood gender nonconformity: Evidence from home videos. Dev Psychol. 2008;44:46–58. [PubMed] 29. Lippa RA. Sexual orientation and personality. Annu Rev Sex Res. 2005;16:119–153. [PubMed] 30. Rieger G, Linsenmeier JAW, Gygas L, Garcia S, Bailey JM. Dissecting “Gaydar”: Accuracy and the role of masculinity-femininity. Arch Sex Behav. 2010;39:124–140. [PubMed] 31. Singh D, Vidaurri M, Ambarano RJ, Dabbs JM., Jr Lesbian erotic role identification: Behavioral, morphological, and hormonal correlates. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1999;76:1035–1049. [PubMed] 32. Carrol L, Gilroy PJ. Role of appearance and nonverbal behaviors in the perception of sexual orientation among lesbians and gay men. Psychological Reports. 2002;91:115–122. [PubMed]
33. Frable DES. Sex-typed execution and perception of expressive movement. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1987;53:391–396.
34. Freeman JB, Johnson KL, Ambady N, Rule NO. Sexual orientation perception involves gendered facial cues. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2010;36:1318–1331. [PubMed]
35. Kite ME, Deaux K. Gender belief systems: Homosexuality and the implicit inversion theory. Psychol Women Quart. 1987;11:83–96.
36. Johnson KL, Freeman JB, Pauker K. Race is gendered: How covarying phenotypes and stereotypes bias sex categorization. Manuscript submitted for publication 2011 [PubMed]
37. Diggle PJ, Liang KY, Zeger SL. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1994. Analysis of longitudinal data.
38. Fitzmaurice GM, Laird NM, Ware JH. New York: John Wiley and Sons; 2004. Applied Longitudinal Analysis.
39. Liang KY, Zeger SL. Longitudinal data analysis for discrete and continuous outcomes using generalized linear models. Biometrika. 1986;84:13–22.
40. Johnson KL, Tassinary LG. Compatibility of basic social perceptions determines perceived attractiveness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:5246–5251. [PubMed]
41. Johnson KL, Tassinary LG. The functional significance of the WHR in judgments of attractiveness. In: Swami V, Furnham A, editors. Body Beautiful: Evolutionary and Socio-cultural Perspectives. New York: Palgrave Macmillian; 2007. pp. 159–184.
42. Feinman S. Why is cross-sex-role behavior more approved for girls than for boys? A status characteristic approach. Sex Roles. 1981;7:289–300.
43. Feinman S. A status theory evaluation of sex-role behavior and age-role behavior. Sex Roles. 1984;10:445–456.
44. McCreary DR. The male role and avoiding femininity. Sex Roles. 1994;31:517–531.
45. Stanislaw H, Todorov N. Calculation of signal detection theory measures. Behav Res Meth Instrum Comput. 1999;31:137–149. [PubMed] 46. Corby BC, Hodges EVE, Perry DG. Gender identity and adjustment in Black, Hispanic, and White preadolescents. Dev Psychol. 2007;43:261–266. [PubMed] 47. Vandello JA, Bosson JK, Cohen D, Burnaford RM, Weaver JR. Precarious manhood. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2008;95:1325–1339. [PubMed] 48. Goldinger SD, He Y, Papesh M. Deficits in cross-race face learning: Insights from eye-movements and pupillometry. J Exp Psychol Learn. 2006;35:1105–1122. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
49. Meissner CA, Brigham JC. Thirty years of investigating the own-race bias in memory for faces: A meta-analytic review. Psychol Public Pol L. 2001;7:3–35.
50. Rule NO. Male sexual orientation is perceived accurately across racial groups. Manuscript submitted for publication 2011
51. Frable DES, Platt L, Hoey S. Concealable stigmas and positive self-perceptions: Feeling better around similar others. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1998;74:909–922. [PubMed]
52. Pauker K, Rule NO, Ambady N. Ambiguity and social perception. In: Balcetis E, Lassiter D, editors. Social Psychology of Visual Perception. New York: Psychology Press; 2010. pp. 13–29.
53. Goff PA, Thomas MA, Jackson MC. “Ain't I a woman?” Towards an intersectional approach to person perception and group-based harms. Sex Roles. 2008;59:392–403.
54. Johnson KL, McKay L, Pollick FE. He throws like a girl (but only when he's sad): Emotion affects sex-decoding of biological motion displays. Cognition. In press. 2011 doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2011.01.016. [PubMed]