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Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptHHS Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
 
From:
Cancer Causes Control. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 July 1.
Published in final edited form as:
Cancer Causes Control. 2010 July; 21(7): 1033–1046.
Published online 2010 March 14. doi: 10.1007/s10552-010-9532-7

Table 2

Intake of fiber and sources of fiber during adolescence and relative risk (95% confidence interval) of proliferative BBD in NHSII

ExposuresQuintile of energy-adjusted fiber intake
P trend
1 (low)2345 (high)
Fiber
  Intake (g/day)a15.118.020.322.827.5
  No. of combined BBD casesb/pysc157/51815147/51610139/52007127/51951112/52444
      Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)0.96 (0.76, 1.20)0.91 (0.72, 1.14)0.83 (0.66, 1.06)0.73 (0.57, 0.93)<0.01
      Multivariate HR (95% CI)d1.00 (ref)0.96 (0.76, 1.20)0.91 (0.73, 1.15)0.85 (0.67, 1.07)0.75 (0.59, 0.96)0.01
      Additional adjustment for total nutsd1.00 (ref)0.98 (0.78, 1.22)0.94 (0.74, 1.18)0.88 (0.69, 1.12)0.80 (0.62, 1.02)0.05
  No. of prospective BBD casese/pysc37/1382429/1381728/1375223/1374425/13879
      Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)0.78 (0.48, 1.28)0.75 (0.46, 1.24)0.61 (0.36, 1.03)0.61 (0.37, 1.03)0.05
      Multivariate HR (95% CI)f1.00 (ref)0.77 (0.47, 1.27)0.77 (0.47, 1.26)0.62 (0.36, 1.05)0.61 (0.36, 1.03)0.05
      Additional adjustment for total nutsf1.00 (ref)0.80 (0.49, 1.32)0.81 (0.49, 1.34)0.67 (0.39, 1.14)0.66 (0.39, 1.13)0.11

Fiber from fruits
  Intake (g/day)a1.72.94.05.37.6
  No. of combined BBD casesb/pysc154/53746139/53143138/52007125/49759126/51173
      Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)0.90 (0.71, 1.13)0.90 (0.72, 1.14)0.87 (0.68, 1.10)0.85 (0.67, 1.08)0.20
      Multivariate HR (95% CI)d1.00 (ref)0.91 (0.72, 1.14)0.92 (0.73, 1.16)0.90 (0.71, 1.14)0.89 (0.70, 1.13)0.38
  No. of prospective BBD casese/pysc33/1427026/1407828/1374629/1319126/13731
      Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)0.82 (0.49, 1.38)0.83 (0.50, 1.38)0.91 (0.55, 1.51)0.76 (0.45, 1.28)0.42
      Multivariate HR (95% CI)f1.00 (ref)0.83 (0.49, 1.39)0.84 (0.50, 1.40)0.95 (0.57, 1.59)0.77 (0.45, 1.30)0.47

Fiber from vegetables
  Intake (g/day)a3.34.86.07.510.5
  No. of combined BBD casesb/pysc158/55760136/50795136/50163123/52946129/50163
      Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)0.94 (0.74, 1.18)0.93 (0.74, 1.17)0.79 (0.62, 1.00)0.88 (0.69, 1.11)0.16
      Multivariate HR (95% CI)d1.00 (ref)0.95 (0.76, 1.20)0.94 (0.75, 1.19)0.81 (0.64, 1.02)0.91 (0.72, 1.15)0.28
  No. of prospective BBD casese/pysc38/1391229/1441123/1320625/1413527/13353
      Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)0.75 (0.46, 1.22)0.64 (0.38, 1.08)0.63 (0.38, 1.05)0.73 (0.44, 1.20)0.21
      Multivariate HR (95% CI)f1.00 (ref)0.76 (0.46, 1.24)0.62 (0.37, 1.05)0.64 (0.38, 1.07)0.73 (0.44, 1.21)0.22

Fiber from cruciferous vegetables

  Intake (g/day)a0.10.30.60.81.3
  No. of combined BBD casesb/pysc168/62316114/43807151/51617127/52170122/49918
      Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)0.95 (0.75, 1.21)1.08 (0.86, 1.34)0.90 (0.71, 1.13)0.90 (0.71, 1.14)0.34
      Multivariate HR (95% CI)d1.00 (ref)0.96 (0.75, 1.21)1.09 (0.87, 1.37)0.91 (0.72, 1.15)0.91 (0.72, 1.15)0.42
  No. of prospective BBD casese/pysc39/1651820/1163030/1364421/1383132/13394
      Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)0.70 (0.41, 1.21)0.92 (0.57, 1.49)0.62 (0.36, 1.05)0.98 (0.61, 1.58)0.98
      Multivariate HR (95% CI)f1.00 (ref)0.68 (0.40, 1.18)0.94 (0.58, 1.53)0.60 (0.35, 1.04)0.98 (0.61, 1.59)0.97

Fiber from legumes
  Intake (g/day)a1.11.82.33.14.6
  No. of combined BBD casesb/pysc147/53247151/53585130/50295124/52415130/50286
      Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)0.99 (0.79, 1.24)0.90 (0.71, 1.14)0.81 (0.63, 1.03)0.90 (0.71, 1.14)0.19
      Multivariate HR (95% CI)d1.00 (ref)0.99 (0.79, 1.24)0.91 (0.72, 1.16)0.81 (0.64, 1.03)0.91 (0.72, 1.16)0.26
  No. of prospective BBD casese/pysc33/1419735/1416224/1332923/1396727/13361
      Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.03 (0.64, 1.66)0.76 (0.45, 1.30)0.66 (0.39, 1.14)0.83 (0.49, 1.40)0.27
      Multivariate HR (95% CI)f1.00 (ref)1.00 (0.62, 1.62)0.75 (0.44, 1.28)0.64 (0.37, 1.10)0.81 (0.48, 1.37)0.24

Fiber from cereal
  Intake (g/day)a3.64.75.56.48.4
  No. of combined BBD casesb/pysc158/55068158/54091123/47585126/51659117/51425
      Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.06 (0.85, 1.32)0.95 (0.75, 1.20)0.89 (0.70, 1.13)0.85 (0.67, 1.09)0.09
      Multivariate HR (95% CI)d1.00 (ref)1.07 (0.86, 1.34)0.97 (0.76, 1.23)0.91 (0.72, 1.15)0.88 (0.69, 1.12)0.14
  No. of prospective BBD casese/pysc27/1466732/1427833/1267628/1368122/13715
      Age-adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.19 (0.71, 1.99)1.36 (0.81, 2.28)1.08 (0.63, 1.84)0.84 (0.47, 1.49)0.38
      Multivariate HR (95% CI)f1.00 (ref)1.17 (0.69, 1.97)1.35 (0.80, 2.27)1.06 (0.62, 1.81)0.85 (0.48, 1.51)0.41
aMedian fiber intake of each quintile, adjusted for total energy intake using the residual method.
b682 cases of proliferative BBD (with or without atypia) were diagnosed during the follow-up period 1991–2001.
cpys: person-years.
dThe multivariate models are adjusted for age in months, time period (5 periods), total energy intake (quintiles), age at menarche (<12, 12, 13, or ≥14 years), menopausal status (premenopausal, postmenopausal, or uncertain), average body size between ages 5 and 10 (somatotype pictogram 1, 1.5–2, 2.5–3, 3.5–4.5, or ≥5), family history of breast cancer in mother or sister(s) (yes vs. no), alcohol intake between ages 18 and 22 years (0, <5, 5–14, or ≥15 grams/day), multivitamin use between ages 13 and 18 years (yes vs. no), recency and duration of OC use (never, past <4 years, past ≥4 years, current <4 years, or current ≥4 years), and parity and age at first birth (nulliparous; 1–2 pregnancies, age at first birth <25 years; 1–2 pregnancies, age at first birth 25–29 years; 1–2 pregnancies, age at first birth ≥30 years; ≥3 pregnancies, age at first birth <25 years; ≥3 pregnancies, age at first birth 25–29 years; or ≥3 pregnancies, age at first birth ≥30 years).
e142 cases of proliferative BBD (with or without atypia) were diagnosed during the follow-up period 1998–2001.
fThe multivariate models are adjusted for age in months, time period (2 periods), total energy intake (quintiles), age at menarche (<12, 12, 13, or ≥ 14 years), menopausal status (premenopausal, postmenopausal, or uncertain), average body size between ages 5 and 10 (somatotype pictogram 1, 1.5–2, 2.5–3, 3.5–4.5, ≥5), history of breast cancer in mother or sister(s) (yes vs. no), alcohol intake between ages 18 and 22 (0, <5, 5–14, or ≥15 grams/day), multivitamin use between ages 13 and 18 (yes vs. no), recency and duration of OC use (never, past <4 years, past ≥4 years, or current), and parity and age at first birth (nulliparous; 1–2 pregnancies, age at first birth <25 years; 1–2 pregnancies, age at first birth 25–29 years; 1–2 pregnancies, age at first birth ≥30 years; ≥3 pregnancies, age at first birth <25 years; or ≥3 pregnancies, age at first birth ≥25 years).