PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptNIH Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
 
J Neurosci. Author manuscript; available in PMC May 10, 2011.
Published in final edited form as:
PMCID: PMC3059102
NIHMSID: NIHMS251184
Lgi4 promotes the proliferation and differentiation of glial lineage cells throughout the developing peripheral nervous system
Jinsuke Nishino,1 Thomas L. Saunders,2 Koji Sagane,3 and Sean J. Morrison1,4
1Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Life Sciences Institute, Department of Internal Medicine, and Center for Stem Cell Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48109-2216
2Transgenic Animal Model Core, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48109-2216
3Tsukuba Research Laboratories, Eisai Co., Tokodai 5-1-3, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 300-2635 JAPAN
4Correspondence: 5435 Life Sciences Institute, 210 Washtenaw Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48109-2216; phone 734-647-6261; fax 734-615-8133; seanjm/at/umich.edu
The mechanisms that regulate peripheral nervous system (PNS) gliogenesis are incompletely understood. For example, gut neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) do not respond to known gliogenic factors, suggesting that yet unidentified factors regulate gut gliogenesis. To identify new mechanisms, we performed gene expression profiling to identify factors secreted by gut neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) during the gliogenic phase of development. These cells highly expressed Leucine-rich glioma inactivated 4 (Lgi4) despite the fact that Lgi4 has never been implicated in stem cell function or enteric nervous system development. Lgi4 is known to regulate peripheral nerve myelination (having been identified as the mutated gene in spontaneously arising claw paw mutant mice) but Lgi4 is not known to play any role in PNS development outside of peripheral nerves. To systematically analyze Lgi4 function we generated gene-targeted mice. Lgi4 deficient mice exhibited a more severe phenotype than claw paw mice and had gliogenic defects in sensory, sympathetic and enteric ganglia. We found that Lgi4 is required for the proliferation and differentiation of glial restricted progenitors throughout the PNS. Analysis of compound mutant mice revealed that the mechanism by which Lgi4 promotes enteric gliogenesis involves binding the ADAM22 receptor. Our results identify a new mechanism regulating enteric gliogenesis as well as novel functions for Lgi4 regulating the proliferation and maturation of glial lineage cells throughout the PNS.
Keywords: Lgi4, peripheral nervous system, gliogenesis, neural crest, stem cell
The neural crest is a heterogeneous collection of progenitors, including multipotent NCSCs and restricted progenitors, that give rise to the neurons and glia of the PNS (Le Douarin, 1986; Fraser and Bronner-Fraser, 1991; Stemple and Anderson, 1992; Henion and Weston, 1997). These neurons and glia constitute sensory, sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric ganglia as well as peripheral nerves. While the regulation of neurogenesis has been elucidated to a considerable extent (Anderson et al., 1997), comparatively less is known about the regulation of gliogenesis.
Some of the cell-extrinsic factors that regulate gliogenesis have been identified. Notch ligands instruct NCSCs to undergo gliogenesis (Morrison et al., 2000) and Notch signaling is necessary for normal gliogenesis in the PNS (Wakamatsu et al., 2000; Taylor et al., 2007). Neuregulin (Nrg) instructs NCSCs to undergo glial lineage determination (Shah et al., 1994; Morrison et al., 1999) then promotes the proliferation, survival, and maturation of glial lineage cells (Dong et al., 1995; Topilko et al., 1997). Nrg is necessary for gliogenesis in vivo (Meyer and Birchmeier, 1995; Riethmacher et al., 1997). These gliogenic factors interact with each other and with other lineage determination factors to combinatorially regulate NCSC differentiation (Shah and Anderson, 1997; Paratore et al., 2001; Joseph et al., 2004).
Known gliogenic factors cannot fully explain PNS gliogenesis. Neither Notch ligands nor Nrg cause E14.5 gut NCSCs to undergo gliogenesis in culture despite the fact that these cells undergo gliogenesis in vivo at this stage of development (Bixby et al., 2002) and are capable of forming glia in diverse PNS locations after transplantation into chick embryos (Mosher et al., 2006). This suggests there are yet unidentified factors that promote PNS gliogenesis. Moreover, clusters of neural crest cells exhibit a much greater gliogenic response to Nrg as compared to single, isolated neural crest cells (Paratore et al., 2001). This suggests that unknown autocrine or paracrine factors secreted by neural crest cells can augment the gliogenic response to Nrg.
Lgi4 is secreted by Schwann cells and regulates peripheral nerve myelination (Bermingham et al., 2006) by binding to the A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 22 (ADAM22) receptor expressed by neurons (Fukata et al., 2006; Sagane et al., 2008)(Ozkaynak et al., 2010). Adam22 deficient mice also exhibit defects in peripheral nerve myelination (Sagane et al., 2005). Lgi4 is mutated in spontaneously arising claw paw (clp) mutant mice, which exhibit a characteristic arthrogryposis-like forelimb posture phenotype caused by delayed peripheral nerve myelination (Koszowski et al., 1998; Darbas et al., 2004; Bermingham et al., 2006). Claw paw mutant mice have a small insertion in the Lgi4 gene, which disrupts Lgi4 splicing, leading to a mutant form of the Lgi4 protein that lacks exon 4 (Bermingham et al., 2006). Many claw paw mice die soon after birth but some survive to adulthood as nerve myelination gradually recovers (Darbas et al., 2004). Despite their importance in nerve myelination, Lgi4 and ADAM22 are not known to regulate PNS development outside of peripheral nerves.
We discovered that Lgi4 was highly expressed by gut NCSCs during the gliogenic phase of gut development. We generated Lgi4 deficient mice (Lgi4LacZ/LacZ) and found that they exhibited a defect in peripheral nerve myelination attributable to a defect in Schwann cell differentiation, similar to claw paw mice (Lgi4clp/clp); however, Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice had a more severe phenotype and all died within 3 weeks of birth. We discovered that Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice had defects in glial-restricted progenitor proliferation and glial differentiation in enteric, sympathetic, and sensory ganglia. Lgi4 deficiency reduced the numbers of enteric and satellite glia in these ganglia and impeded their acquisition of a mature morphology. Adam22-deficient mice and Lgi4LacZ/LacZAdam22−/− compound mutant mice had similar gliogenic defects as Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice in the enteric nervous system, suggesting that Lgi4 promotes gliogenesis by binding ADAM22 in multiple regions of the developing PNS. Our results identify a new mechanism that regulates enteric gliogenesis and new functions for Lgi4 and ADAM22 regulating gliogenesis throughout the PNS.
Mice
To generate Lgi4LacZ/LacZ (Lgi4tm1Sjm) mice, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones containing the Lgi4 genomic locus were purchased (Invitrogen) and a targeting vector was constructed using bacterial recombineering (Copeland et al., 2001; Liu et al., 2003). Bruce 4.G9 ES cells (a subline of Bruce4 selected for improved genetic stability (Kontgen et al., 1993; Hughes et al., 2007)) were electroporated with the targeting construct, positively selected with G418 (Gibco, Grand Island, NY), and negatively selected with gancyclovir (cytovene from Syntex; see Suppl. Fig. 1 for the targeting strategy). Correctly targeted ES cell clones were identified by Southern blot, and their chromosome numbers were confirmed to be euploid. Three independent ES cell clones were injected into blastcysts obtained from B6(Cg)-Tyrc-2J/J mice (Jackson laboratory). The resulting male ES cell/mouse chimeras were crossed with B6(Cg)-Tyrc-2J/J mice to obtain germline transmission. After germline transmission, the neo cassette was removed by crossing with B6.Cg-Tg(ACTFLPe)9205Dym/J mice (Rodriguez et al., 2000). Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice and Adam22−/− mice (Sagane et al., 2005) were housed at the University of Michigan Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, an AAALAC accredited facility that follows the National Research Council’s guide for the care and use of laboratory animals.
Cell culture and self-renewal assay
Neural crest stem and progenitor cells were isolated and cultured as described in prior studies (Molofsky et al., 2005; Joseph et al., 2008; Nishino et al., 2008). For adherent cultures, PNS cells were enzymatically dissociated and plated at clonal density (0.33 cells/µl = 500 cells per 35mm well), in 6 well plates (Corning) that had been sequentially coated with 150 µg/ml poly-d-lysine (Biomedical Technologies, Stoughton, MA) and 20 µg/ml laminin (Sigma). For the non-adherent culture of neurospheres, PNS cells were plated at 0.67–1.33 cells/µl (1000–2000 cells per 35mm well) in ultra-low binding 6-well plates (Corning). Cells were initially cultured for 8 to 10 days in ‘self-renewal medium’ to promote the formation of undifferentiated colonies. This medium contained a 5:3 mixture of DMEM-low:neurobasal medium, supplemented with 20 ng/ml recombinant human bFGF (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN), 20 ng/ml IGF1 (R&D Systems), 15% chick embryo extracts (CEE), 1% N2 supplement (Gibco), 2% B27 supplement (Gibco), 50 mM 2-mercaptoethanol, 35 µg/ml (110 nM) retinoic acid (Sigma), and penicillin/streptomycin (Biowhittaker). Cultures were subsequently refed with ‘differentiation medium’ and allowed to grow for an additional 4 to 7 days. Differentiation medium contained 10 ng/ml (instead of 20 ng/ml) bFGF, 5% fetal bovine serum (Gibco), no IGF, and no CEE. After being grown in self-renewal medium, neurospheres were routinely transferred to adherent cultures containing differentiation medium before being stained to assess multilineage differentiation (see below). All cultures were maintained at 37°C in 6% CO2 incubators.
To measure self-renewal, individual PNS neurospheres were replated (one/well) for 72 h onto adherent plates to allow the spheres to spread out over the culture dish, facilitating dissociation. Individual adherent colonies were then dissociated with trypsin and collagenase (four parts 0.05% trypsin-EDTA plus one part 10 mg/mL collagenase IV) for 3 min at 37°C followed by trituration. Two thousand dissociated cells were replated per well of a six-well plate. Secondary neurospheres were cultured, differentiated, and the number of multilineage secondary colonies generated by each primary colony were counted.
Isolation of neural tissues
E13.5 embryonic PNS tissues (DRG, sympathetic chain, and gut) were dissected into ice cold PBS and dissociated by incubating for 4 min at 37°C in trypsin/EDTA (BioWhittaker, product 17-161E, diluted 1:10 in Ca, Mg-free HBSS) plus 0.25 mg/ml type 4 collagenase (Worthington, Lakewood NJ). P0 gut plexus/outer muscle layer cells were minced, and dissociated for 15 min at 37°C in 0.025% trypsin/EDTA (Gibco 25300-054, Grand Island, NY) plus 1 mg/ml type 4 collagenase (Worthington) in Ca, Mg-free HBSS. After centrifuging, the cells were gently triturated, filtered through nylon screen (45 mm, Sefar America, Kansas City, MO), counted by hemocytometer, and resuspended in staining medium before being sorted or plated. Staining medium was L15 medium containing 1 mg/ml BSA (Sigma A-3912, St. Louis, MO), 10 mM HEPES (pH 7.4), and penicillin/streptomycin (BioWhittaker, Walkersville, MD).
Antibodies and immunohistochemistry
PNS tissues were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde overnight, then cryoprotected in 30% sucrose, embedded in OCT compound and frozen. 10 µm sections were cut, then pre-blocked for 1 hr at room temperature in blocking solution (PBS containing 5% goat serum, 0.2% bovine serum albumin, and 0.5% TritonX-100), incubated with primary antibody at 4°C overnight, followed by washing, and incubation in secondary antibody for 1 hr at room temperature. Primary antibodies included those against Krox20 (Covance, Berkeley, CA, PRB-236P, 1:1000), Periaxin (gift from Dr. P. Brophy, University of Edinburgh, UK 1:400) (Gillespie et al., 1994), Peripherin (Millopore, Billerica, MA, 1:1000), beta-galactosidase (gift from Dr. T. Glaser, University of Michigan), Tuj1 (Covance, Berkeley, CA, MMS-435P, 1:1000), BFABP (gift from Dr. T. Muller, Max-Delbruck-Center, Berlin, Germany, 1:2000) (Kurtz et al., 1994), p75 (Millipore, AB1554, 1:1000), Sox10 (R&D Systems, 20B7, 1:400), GFAP (BD Pharmingen, San Diego, CA, 1:400), phospho-Histone H3 (Cell Signaling Technology Inc., Danvers, MA, 1:200), HuC/D (1:200, Molecular Probes, Inc., Eugene, OR), and NeuN (Millipore, MAB377,1:1000). For secondary antibodies, Alexa-Flour 488 or 555 conjugated antibodies were used (Molecular Probes, Inc., Eugene, OR, 1:1000). Slides were counter stained in 2.5µg/ml DAPI for 10 min at room temperature, then mounted using ProLong antifade solution (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR).
For in situ hybridization to detect Adam9, Adam11, Adam22, and Adam23 transcripts, E14.5 embryos or P0 pups were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde overnight, cryoprotected in 30% sucrose, embedded in OCT compound, and frozen. 10 µm sections were cut, pretreated with 2µg/ml Proteinase K at 37°C for 20 min, with 0.2N HCl for 10 min at room temperature with 0.1M triethanolamine-HCl for 10 min at room temperature and hybridized with Digoxigenin-labeled Adam antisense probe at 55°C overnight. The next day, sections were washed with 2XSSC for 30 min at 55°C, with 0.2XSSC for 40 min, blocked with 20% goat serum for 1 hr, and incubated with anti-Digoxigenin-AP (Alkarine-Phosphatase) Fab fragment (1:2000, Roche) for 60 min at room temperature. Sections were washed with Tris buffered saline (pH 9.5) with 0.1% tween-20 for 30 min at room temperature, and incubated with 0.5µl/ml NBT (nitro-blue tetrazolium chloride) plus 3.5µl/ml BCIP (5-Bromo-4-Chloro-3'-Indolylphosphatase p-Toluidine salt) (Roche).
For X-gal staining, E10.5 and E13.5 mouse embryo or P0 pups were fixed with 1% paraformaldehyde/0.2% glutaraldehyde for 10 min at 4°C. Then whole embryos (E10.5) or cryosections (E13.5 and P0) were incubated in staining solution at 37°C for 4–16 hr.
Genotyping
Genotyping was performed by PCR using GoTag Flexi DNA polymerase (Promega), following the manufacturer’s instructions. The primers for Lgi4 genotyping were: 5’-GCATCCCACGGAGATGTAGT-3’ (common sense primer), 5’-CAACCTGCACCTTTCCAAAT-3’ (antisense primer for the detection of the wild-type allele), and 5’-GTTGTGGCGGATCTTGAAGT-3’ (antisense primer for the detection of the Lgi4LacZ allele). Primers for Adam22 genotyping: 5’-TGAGTTGGGCAGAACTGAGTCACTG-3’ (common sense primer), 5’-AGGAATTGCAAAGAAGAGCCTGTGAC-3’ (antisense primer for the detection of the wild-type allele), and 5’-CATGCTCCAGACTGCCTTGGGAAAAG-3’ (antisense primer for the detection of Adam22 allele). The PCR cycle was 94°C for 2 min, followed by 35 cycles of 94°C for 30 seconds, 60°C for 30 seconds, and 72°C for 1min, and followed by 72°C for 5 min.
Immunocytochemistry
PNS neurospheres were replated into adherent cultures in which the plates had been coated with poly-D-lysine and laminin. The neurospheres were allowed to differentiate for 7 to 9 days, then fixed in acid ethanol for 20 min at −20°C, washed, blocked, and triply labeled with antibodies against peripherin (Chemicon International, AB1530, 1:1000), GFAP (Sigma, G-3893, 1:200), and SMA (Sigma, A-2547, 1:200) as described previously (Kruger et al., 2002). Cells were stained for 10 min at room temperature with 10 µg/ml DAPI (Sigma, D-8417) to visualize nuclei.
To study the proliferation of glial progenitors, cells were fixed in 70% ethanol for 30 minutes at −20°C, and stained with antibody against phospho-Histone H3 (Cell Signaling Technology, 9701, 1:100). Cells were counterstained for 10 min at room temperature with 10 µg/ml DAPI (Sigma D-8417).
For X-gal staining of neurospheres, E13.5 PNS neurospheres were fixed with 1% paraformaldehyde/0.2% glutaraldehyde for 5 min at 4°C and incubated for 1 hr at 37°C in staining solution: PBS containing 2 mM 5-bromo-4 chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-balactoside (X-gal; Molecular Probes, Eugene OR, USA), 2 mM MgCl2, 5 mM potassium ferrocyanide, 5 mM potassium ferricyanide, and 0.02% NP-40. In some cases, neurospheres were transferred to plates coated with poly-D-lysine and laminin, and cultured for 3 days in self-renewal medium. Cells were fixed with 1% paraformaldehyde for 5 min at 4°C, incubated in staining solution at 37°C for 1 hr to assess LacZ expression. Cells were then blocked, stained with anti-Nestin antibody (Millipore, MAB353, 1:400) for 1hr at room temperature, followed by Alexa-Flour 488 conjugated anti mouse IgG1 antibody (Molecular Probes, Inc., Eugene, OR, 1:500).
Electron Microscopy
Nerves were dissected and fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde overnight at 4°C. Nerves were rinsed with PBS and re-fixed in 1% OsO4. (Electron Microscopy Sciences, Fort Washington PA, USA) for 1hr at room temperature. Nerves were then dehydrated in an ethanol series (30%, 50%, 70%, 95%, and 100% ethanol) before infiltrating and embedding in Spurr resin(Bozzola and Russell, 1992). Semithin sections (1 µm) were cut with a glass knife. Thin sections (70 nm) were cut with a diamond knife. Some sections were stained with uranyl acetete to reveal the basal lamina. Sections were examined with a transmission electron microscope (Phillips CM-100).
Binding assay
For immunoprecipitation, 293T cells were co-transfected with Lgi-4-FLAG and HA-tagged ADAMs (ADAM9-HA, ADAM11-HA, ADAM22-HA, and ADAM23-HA; gift from Dr. M. Fukata, NINS, Japan). 24hr after transfection, cells were harvested and suspended in lysis buffer (20mM Tris, 137mM NaCl, 10% glycerol, 1% NP-40, 2mM EDTA, and protease inhibitor cocktail (complete mini-tablet, Roche)) for 1 hr at 4°C, incubated with ProteinG-Agarose at 4°C for 60 min to absorb non-specific binding. After eliminating ProteinG-Agarose by centrifugation, small fractions of supernatants were saved as input, and the rest was incubated overnight at 4°C with either anti-FLAG antibody (M2, Sigma, 1:500) or anti-HA antibody (Sigma, H6908, 1:500). The next day, immunoprecipitated fractions were harvested by incubating with ProteinG-Agarose for 60 min at 4°C, washed with washing buffer, and boiled for 5 min with SDS sample loading buffer. SDS PAGE was done in 4–20% Tris-Glycine Gels (Invitrogen) and transferred to PVDF membranes (Millipore). The membranes were blocked in Tris buffered saline with 0.05% Tween-20 and 5% milk, incubated with primary and secondary antibodies, and washed following standard procedures. Horseradish peroxidase conjugated secondary antibodies were detected by chemiluminescence (ECL Plus; Amersham-Pharmacia).
For the cell surface binding assay, COS7 cells were seeded onto poly-d-lysine coated coverslips, and co-transfected with Lgi-4-FLAG and HA-tagged ADAMs. 24hr after transfection, cells were fixed with 2% paraformaldehyde for 10 min at 4°C, and blocked with PBS containing 2mg/ml BSA for 10min at 4°C. Cells were immediately stained with anti-FLAG antibody (1:1000), followed by Alexa-Flour 488 conjugated anti-mouse IgG1 antibody (Molecular Probes, Inc., Eugene, OR, 1:500). Then cells were permeabilized with 0.1% Triton X-100 for 10 min, blocked, and stained with anti-HA antibody (1:1000), followed by Alexa-Flour 555 conjugated anti mouse IgG1 antibody (Molecular Probes, Inc., Eugene, OR, 1:500).
Lgi4 is expressed by neural crest and glial lineage cells throughout the PNS
To identify new mechanisms by which secreted factors regulate PNS development we compared the gene expression profiles of highly purified p75+α4+ NCSCs isolated from the embryonic day (E)14.5 rat gut to whole fetal RNA (Iwashita et al., 2003). The most highly upregulated secreted gene product in NCSCs as compared to whole fetal RNA was Lgi4 (Table 1). By microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR, this gene was 35±18 fold and 44±17 fold, respectively, upregulated in gut NCSCs as compared to whole fetal RNA using three independent samples of each cell population for each type of analysis. We therefore wondered whether Lgi4 regulates PNS development beyond its known role in peripheral nerve myelination.
Table 1
Table 1
Genes that encode secreted proteins and that are significantly more highly expressed in gut NCSCs as compared to whole fetal RNA by gene expression profiling (fold change >3.0) (Iwashita et al., 2003).
To systematically examine Lgi4 expression, we generated a gene-targeted mouse in which LacZ was knocked into the Lgi4 genomic locus by homologous recombination (Suppl. Fig. 1). LacZ was inserted in-frame with the Lgi4 start codon so that LacZ expression could be used to infer the Lgi4 expression pattern. Lgi4LacZ/+ mice were born with expected Mendelian ratios (Fig. 3C), survived into adulthood, and were developmentally grossly normal. X-gal staining of Lgi4LacZ/+ embryos indicated that Lgi4 was expressed by migrating neural crest cells (Fig. 1A) and then by neural crest-derived cells throughout the developing PNS but rarely by cells outside of the PNS (Fig. 1B). At E10.5, Lgi4 was expressed in the trigeminal, facial, dorsal root (DRG), and sympathetic ganglia, as well as in peripheral nerves, and gut (Fig. 1B). At later stages of PNS development (E13.5 to P0), Lgi4 expression was maintained in the myenteric plexus of the gut, in DRGs, in sympathetic ganglia, in peripheral nerves, and in parasympathetic ganglia (Fig. 1C).
Figure 3
Figure 3
Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice exhibit abnormal forelimb posture, peripheral nerve hypomyelination, growth retardation, and neonatal death
Figure 1
Figure 1
Lgi4 is expressed by neural crest stem cells and other undifferentiated neural crest cells throughout the developing PNS
To confirm Lgi4 expression in undifferentiated neural crest cells, we cultured cells from E13.5 gut, DRG, and sympathetic ganglia in non-adherent cultures at clonal density. Cells from each region of the developing PNS formed neurospheres in culture, consistent with our prior demonstration that each of these locations contain NCSCs that can be propagated in culture as neurospheres (Bixby et al., 2002; Taylor et al., 2007; Joseph et al., 2008). Almost all spheres from each region of the developing PNS stained with X-gal, indicating Lgi4 expression, in contrast to spheres from control littermates (Fig. 1D). We confirmed that X-gal-stained spheres contained neural stem/progenitor cells by staining with Nestin (Fig. 1E).
At birth (P0), when most neural crest cells had differentiated, Lgi4 expression became restricted to a subpopulation of cells in each ganglion (see the reduced X-gal staining in ganglia at P0 as compared to E13.5 in Fig. 1C). To assess which cells expressed Lgi4 at P0 we stained sections through the gut, DRGs, and superior cervical (sympathetic) ganglia with antibodies against LacZ and the neuronal markers HuC/D or NeuN, or the glial marker brain-specific fatty acid binding protein (BFABP). In each region of the newborn PNS we detected LacZ staining in glial cells but not in neurons (Fig. 2A–C). Our data indicate that Lgi4 is initially expressed by undifferentiated neural crest cells throughout the developing PNS but that by birth expression becomes restricted to glial cells.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Lgi4 is expressed by glia in the myenteric plexus, DRGs, and sympathetic ganglia of adult Lgi4LacZ/+ mice
Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice exhibit a more severe phenotype than Lgi4clp/clp mice
To examine the function of Lgi4 in PNS development, we analyzed Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice. Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice exhibited a forelimb posture (arthrogryposis-like) phenotype similar to the defining phenotype in claw paw mutant (Lgi4clp/clp) mice (Bermingham et al., 2006) (Fig. 3A). Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice also exhibited severe growth retardation after birth. Lgi4LacZ/LacZ fetuses had normal body mass at E14.5, but were significantly smaller than littermate controls at P1, and about one third the mass of littermate controls by P14 (Fig. 3A,B). Most of the Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice died immediately after birth and no Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice survived to P21 (Fig. 3C). This complete lethality within three weeks of birth contrasts to the phenotype of Lgi4clp/clp mice, which sometimes survive into adulthood (Koszowski et al., 1998; Darbas et al., 2004; Bermingham et al., 2006). This suggests that the Lgi4LacZ targeted allele gives a complete loss of Lgi4 function while the splicing defect in the Lgi4clp allele gives a partial loss of function.
Sciatic nerves of Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice and littermate controls were examined at P12 to assess whether Lgi4LacZ/LacZ nerves exhibit a hypomyelination phenotype similar to Lgi4clp/clp nerves (Koszowski et al., 1998; Darbas et al., 2004; Bermingham et al., 2006). Lgi4LacZ/LacZ nerves were thinner than control nerves (Fig. 3D), and examination by electron microscopy revealed a severe defect in myelination (Fig. 3E). The myelination defect in Lgi4LacZ/LacZ nerves was further confirmed by staining with antibodies against Krox20 and Periaxin, which exhibit delayed expression within Lgi4clp/clp nerves. In Lgi4LacZ/LacZ nerves, Krox20 and Periaxin expression in Schwann cells were dramatically reduced at P12 as compared to control nerves (Fig. 3F). The reduction in Krox-20 expression was further confirmed by quantitative PCR (0.08±0.02 fold in P12 Lgi4LacZ/LacZ nerves compared to control nerves; 3 mice/genotype). The expression of Oct-6, a marker of immature Schwann cells, did not change in the Lgi4 deficient sciatic nerves (1.15±0.12 fold; 3 mice/genotype), consistent with a prior report (Darbas et al., 2004). The neuronal marker peripherin also did not differ between Lgi4LacZ/LacZ and control nerves (Fig. 3F). Lgi4LacZ/LacZ and control nerves had similar numbers of endoneurial cells in transverse nerve sections (312±54 cells per section in control, and 296±38 cells in Lgi4LacZ/LacZ nerves). Since Schwann cells represent the vast majority of endoneurial cells (Joseph et al., 2004), these data suggest that normal numbers of Schwann cells are generated in the absence of Lgi4 but that these cells fail to fully differentiate to a myelinating phenotype.
Lgi4 deficiency impairs glial differentiation in vitro
To assess whether Lgi4 regulates NCSCs function, we cultured NCSCs from the gut, DRG, and sympathetic chain of E13.5 Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice and littermate controls (Fig. 4A). To minimize fusion between neurospheres, we cultured cells at very low density in non-adherent cultures (1 cell/µl medium) then transferred individual neurospheres to adherent secondary cultures to determine the fraction of neurospheres capable of multilineage differentiation into peripherin+ neurons, GFAP+ glia, and SMA+ myofibroblasts. The percentage of dissociated cells that formed neurospheres that underwent multilineage differentiation was slightly lower in Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice compared to wild-type mice, though the difference was not statistically significant (Fig. 4B). Lgi4LacZ/LacZ neurospheres also did not significantly differ from control neurospheres in terms of diameter or self-renewal potential (Fig. 4B). Self-renewal potential was assessed by dissociating individual neurospheres, then subcloning to secondary cultures to determine the number of multilineage secondary colonies that could be subcloned from each primary stem cell colony. These data suggest that Lgi4 deficiency did not significantly affect NCSC frequency or self-renewal potential.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Lgi4 is not required for neural crest stem cell formation or self-renewal but is required for normal glial differentiation in culture
We noticed that GFAP staining was consistently reduced in Lgi4LacZ/LacZ NCSC colonies as compared to control NCSC colonies. In contrast, we did not detect any effect of Lgi4 deficiency on peripherin or SMA staining (Fig. 4C). The reduction in GFAP staining appeared to reflect a reduced number of GFAP+ cells within Lgi4LacZ/LacZ colonies as well as reduced staining intensity in GFAP+ cells. We observed similar reductions in the number and staining intensity of GFAP+ cells within NCSC colonies cultured from fetal DRG and sympathetic chain (Suppl. Fig. 2), as well as from P0 gut (Suppl. Fig. 3A). These results suggested that Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice had defects in gliogenesis throughout the PNS, not just in developing peripheral nerves.
To quantify the difference in GFAP staining we cultured cells from the guts and DRGs of E13.5 Lgi4LacZ/LacZ embryos and littermate controls in clonal adherent cultures. We also cultured cells from the guts of P0 Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice and littermate controls. Under these conditions, NCSCs form multilineage colonies and restricted progenitors form glia-only or neuron-only colonies (Joseph et al., 2008; Nishino et al., 2008). The total number of colonies formed by Lgi4LacZ/LacZ cells did not significantly differ from control cells (Fig. 4D, Suppl. Fig. 3B); therefore, neural crest stem/progenitor cells were not grossly depleted or impaired in their ability to survive in culture in the absence of Lgi4. However, in all cases multilineage colonies and restricted progenitor colonies contained fewer GFAP+ cells in the absence of Lgi4. Significantly fewer colonies contained GFAP+ glia in the Lgi4LacZ/LacZ cultures but the total number of colonies that contained neurons or myofibroblasts was not significantly affected by Lgi4 deficiency (Fig. 4D, E; Suppl. Fig 3B). These data suggest that Lgi4 is required for the generation of normal numbers of glia in multiple regions of the PNS.
Fewer glial cells are generated throughout the PNS in vivo in the absence of Lgi4
To test whether Lgi4 deficiency affects enteric gliogenesis in vivo we examined sections from the guts of Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice and littermate controls. Lgi4LacZ/LacZ embryos had normal numbers of p75+ neural crest stem/progenitor cells migrating through the foregut and midgut at E10.5 (Fig. 5A, B) consistent with our data indicating that Lgi4 is not required for the generation or self-renewal of gut NCSCs (Fig. 4B). The numbers of Tuj1+ neurons in the foregut, midgut, and hindgut were also normal in Lgi4LacZ/LacZ embryos at E10.5 and at E18.5 (Fig. 5C, D), suggesting that enteric neural crest migration and neurogenesis were not grossly affected by the absence of Lgi4. In contrast, we observed significantly fewer BFABP+ glial cells per section through the foregut, midgut, and hindgut of Lgi4LacZ/LacZ embryos at E18.5 (no gliogenesis was detected at E10.5; Fig. 5C, D). This demonstrates that fewer enteric glia are generated in vivo in the absence of Lgi4, consistent with what we had observed from gut NCSCs in culture.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice have normal numbers of undifferentiated progenitors and neurons but fewer glia throughout the PNS
We also examined sections through DRGs and sympathetic ganglia at E10.5 and E18.5. At E10.5, there was no difference between Lgi4LacZ/LacZ embryos and littermate controls in the number of Sox10+ neural crest cells per section from DRGs or sympathetic ganglia (Fig. 5E, F). This suggests that undifferentiated neural crest cells were able to migrate normally into DRGs and sympathetic ganglia in the absence of Lgi4. We also observed no difference in the number of Tuj1+ neurons per section from the DRGs and sympathetic ganglia of E10.5 or E18.5 Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice as compared to littermate controls (Fig. 5G, H). This suggested that neurogenesis was grossly normal in the absence of Lgi4. In contrast, the number of BFABP+ glia per sections was significantly reduced in both DRGs and sympathetic ganglia from E18.5 Lgi4LacZ/LacZ embryos as compared to littermate controls (no gliogenesis was detected at E10.5; Fig. 5G, H). These data suggest that Lgi4 is not required for the generation or maintenance of NCSCs in DRGs or sympathetic ganglia, but is required to generate normal numbers of glia in these ganglia.
Glial cells fail to adopt a mature phenotype in the absence of Lgi4
To assess whether the differentiation of glial cells to a mature phenotype is affected by Lgi4 deficiency outside of peripheral nerves, we examined the myenteric plexus of P0 Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice and littermate controls. Lgi4LacZ/+ mice exhibited a dense, mesh-like myenteric plexus when whole mounts of the outer plexus/muscle layers were stained with X-gal (Fig. 6A). In contrast, the myenteric plexus from Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice appeared sparse with fewer connections among ganglia (Fig. 6A). Since the number of neurons within the myenteric plexus was normal in the Lgi4LacZ/LacZ gut (Fig. 5D) and neuronal differentiation appeared normal in culture (Fig. 4C), we hypothesized that the sparseness of the plexus was largely attributable to glial defects. To assess this we stained newborn gut plexus/muscle layers with antibodies against GFAP, BFABP, or TuJ1. Both GFAP and BFABP staining were greatly reduced within the myenteric plexus of Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice as compared to controls (Fig. 6B). Higher magnification images indicated that enteric glia within the myenteric plexus were smaller and had fewer processes in the absence of Lgi4 (Fig. 6B). In contrast, TuJ1 staining appeared relatively normal though there again appeared to be fewer connections among ganglia in the Lgi4LacZ/LacZ gut (Fig. 6B). The enteric glia in Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice therefore failed to adopt a normal, mature morphology.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Lgi4 is required for glial cells to acquire a normal, mature morphology throughout the PNS in vivo
Similar defects were observed in satellite cells in the DRGs and sympathetic ganglia of P4 Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice and littermate controls. In wild-type DRGs, GFAP+ satellite glia adopted a honeycomb-like pattern that completely wrapped around sensory neurons. In contrast, within Lgi4LacZ/LacZ DRGs the GFAP+ satellite cells appeared sparse, had short processes compared to wild-type satellite cells, and usually did not wrap around the neurons (Fig. 6C; see Suppl. Fig. 4 for lower power images showing the entire ganglion). By quantitative PCR, we detected a significant reduction of Erm expression in Lgi4LacZ/LacZ DRGs (0.58±0.11 fold in Lgi4LacZ/LacZ DRGs compared to control ganglia; P<0.05; 3 mice/genotype). Since Erm is expressed by satellite glia but not by Schwann cells (Hagedorn et al., 2000), this is consistent with our immunofluorescence analysis in indicating a defect in satellite glia in Lgi4LacZ/LacZ DRGs. The same unusual glial morphology was observed in P4 Lgi4LacZ/LacZ sympathetic ganglia: GFAP+ cells again appeared to be sparse and had short processes that failed to wrap around neurons in contrast to what was observed in control sympathetic ganglia (Fig. 6D). These data indicate that satellite glia fail to adopt a normal, mature morphology throughout the developing PNS in the absence of Lgi4.
Lgi4 is required for the proliferation of glial restricted progenitors
To investigate the mechanisms by which Lgi4 regulates gliogenesis we first tested whether Lgi4 acts instructively on NCSCs to promote glial fate determination. To test this we generated 293T cells that secreted recombinant Lgi4 protein that could be concentrated from conditioned medium (Suppl. Fig. 5). We sorted p75+α4+ NCSCs from the E14.5 rat sciatic nerve and added either Lgi4 conditioned medium, control conditioned medium, or Neuregulin1-β1 (Nrg) to the cultures. We used rat sciatic nerve NCSCs in these experiments because they are more sensitive to the instructive effects of gliogenic factors than mouse NCSCs and can be isolated with a higher degree of purity than mouse NCSCs (Morrison et al., 1999). Nrg robustly promoted the generation of glia-only colonies at the expense of multilineage colonies (Fig. 7A), consistent with our prior demonstration that Nrg instructs sciatic nerve NCSCs to form glial restricted progenitors (Morrison et al., 1999). In contrast, Lgi4 conditioned medium did not significantly affect colony composition relative to control conditioned medium (Fig. 7A). Lgi4 conditioned medium also did not affect colony composition when added to cultures of mouse gut NCSCs (data not shown). We therefore observed no evidence that Lgi4 could promote glial lineage determination.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Lgi4 is required for the proliferation of glial restricted progenitors but not neuronal restricted progenitors
We then tested whether Lgi4 promotes gliogenesis by acting selectively to promote the proliferation or survival of glial restricted progenitors. To test the effect of Lgi4 on glial restricted progenitors we cultured dissociated cells from E13.5 or P0 gut, or from E13.5 DRG, sympathetic ganglia, or sciatic nerve from Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice and littermate controls in adherent cultures at clonal density (such that individual cells formed spatially distinct colonies). Lgi4LacZ/LacZ gut cells formed significantly fewer and significantly smaller glia-only colonies as compared to control cells (Fig. 7B, D, E; Suppl. Fig. 6A). Lgi4LacZ/LacZ sympathetic ganglion cells, but not sciatic nerve cells, also formed significantly fewer and significantly smaller glia-only colonies as compared to control cells (Suppl. Fig. 6A, C). Lgi4LacZ/LacZ DRG cells formed fewer and smaller glia-only colonies, but the difference compared to control cells was not statistically significant (Suppl. Fig. 6A, C). The frequency, size, and peripherin staining of neuron-only colonies from all regions of the developing PNS were not affected by Lgi4 deficiency (Fig. 7C, F, G). These results suggest that Lgi4 is required for the expansion of glial-restricted progenitors in gut and sympathetic ganglia, and perhaps in DRG, but not in sciatic nerve.
To study the mechanism by which Lgi4 promotes the expansion of glial-restricted progenitors we tested whether Lgi4 deficiency affected survival or proliferation within glial-restricted progenitor colonies. To assess the frequency of cell death we stained cultures with an antibody against activated-caspase-3 but found only rare cells undergoing cell death within glia-only colonies, irrespective of whether the colonies were formed by Lgi4LacZ/LacZ or control cells (data not shown). We also stained sections through the gut and DRGs of E13.5 Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice and littermate controls but did not detect any effect of Lgi4 deficiency on the frequency of activated caspase-3+ cells in vivo (Suppl. Fig. 7). We were therefore unable to attribute the differences in gliogenesis in vitro or in vivo to cell death in the absence of Lgi4.
In contrast, we did observe effects of Lgi4 on the proliferation of glial restricted progenitors. We observed a significantly lower frequency of dividing cells within Lgi4LacZ/LacZ as compared to control glia-only colonies based on the frequency of phospho-histone H3+ (pH3+) cells (Fig. 7H). We also observed a significantly lower frequency of dividing cells within Lgi4LacZ/LacZ as compared to control glia-only colonies from E13.5 DRGs and sympathetic ganglia, but not from sciatic nerve (Suppl. Fig. 6B). Glia-only colonies from E13.5 gut also exhibited a reduction, but this was not statistically significant (Suppl. Fig 6B). Addition of Lgi4 conditioned medium to cultures of wild-type gut cells significantly increased the number of cells within glia-only colonies (Fig. 7I), without affecting the size or composition of neuron-only colonies (data not shown). We also stained E16.5 gut sections from Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice and littermate controls with antibodies against pH3 and BFABP. Significantly fewer pH3+BFABP+ cells were observed in Lgi4LacZ/LacZ gut sections as compared to control gut sections (Fig. 7J, K). In contrast, we observed no difference between Lgi4LacZ/LacZ and control gut sections in the frequency of pH3+ cells that did not express BFABP (Fig. 7L). These results suggest that Lgi4 is required for the proliferation of glial restricted progenitors from gut, sympathetic ganglia, and DRGs but that it is not required for the proliferation of neuronal progenitors from these ganglia or for the proliferation of glial progenitors from peripheral nerve.
ADAM22 is a receptor for Lgi4 that regulates enteric gliogenesis
A very recent study demonstrated that Lgi4 promotes peripheral nerve myelination by binding ADAM22 (Ozkaynak et al., 2010), but ADAM22 is not known to regulate other aspects of PNS development. We confirmed that Lgi4 bound to ADAM11, 22, and 23 in immunoprecipitation and cell surface binding assays but not to an unrelated family member, ADAM9 (Fig. 8A, B). Adam22 and Adam23 were expressed throughout the PNS at E14.5 and P0, including within DRGs, sympathetic ganglia, and myenteric plexus (Fig. 8C and Suppl. Fig. 8). Adam9 expression was not detected in the PNS and Adam11 expression was detected in developing DRGs and sympathetic ganglia, but not in the myenteric plexus (Suppl. Fig. 8). These results suggested that Lgi4 could potentially have multiple receptors but that ADAM22 and 23 were the best candidates to mediate the effects on Lgi4 throughout the developing PNS.
Figure 8
Figure 8
ADAM22 is a physiological receptor for Lgi4 that mediates the effect of Lgi4 on PNS gliogenesis
To formally test whether ADAM22 mediates Lgi4 function we performed side-by-side comparisons of the phenotypes of Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice, Adam22−/− mice, and Adam22−/−Lgi4LacZ/LacZ compound mutant mice. Most Adam22−/− mice and Adam22−/−Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice died soon after birth and all of these mice died within three weeks after birth, just like Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice (Suppl. Fig. 9). Newborn Adam22−/− and Adam22−/−Lgi4LacZ/LacZ compound mutant mice exhibited arthrogryposis-like (clawpaw) phenotypes similar to Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice (Fig. 8D). We observed similar degrees of peripheral nerve hypomyelination in newborn Adam22−/− mice, Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice, and Adam22−/−Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice: in each case Krox20 expression, Periaxin expression, and axonal myelination were dramatically reduced (Suppl. Fig. 10). We also observed similar degrees of postnatal growth retardation in Adam22−/− mice and Adam22−/−Lgi4LacZ/LacZ double mutant mice as compared to Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice (Fig. 8E). Adam22−/− and Adam22−/−Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice were significantly smaller than wild-type controls, but were not significantly different from Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mutants at P1 or P12 (Fig. 8E). Thus, Adam22−/− mice have a gross phenotype similar to Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice in terms of hypomyelination, growth retardation, and premature death. Moreover, these phenotypes in Adam22−/−Lgi4LacZ/LacZ compound mutant mice are similar to those in Adam22−/− and Lgi4LacZ/LacZ single mutant mice.
To test whether ADAM22 mediates the effect of Lgi4 on gliogenesis in the enteric nervous system, we cultured NCSCs from the E13.5 gut of Adam22−/−Lgi4LacZ/LacZ compound mutant mice as well as Adam22−/− and Lgi4LacZ/LacZ single mutant mice. In each case, Adam22−/−Lgi4LacZ/LacZ NCSC colonies, Adam22−/− NCSC colonies, and Lgi4LacZ/LacZ NCSC colonies contained fewer GFAP+ glia with less pronounced GFAP staining as compared to wild-type colonies (Fig. 8F). Yet peripherin+ neurons and SMA+ myofibroblasts appeared normal in colonies of all genotypes. These results indicated that Adam22-deficient gut NCSCs exhibit a gliogenic defect in culture, similar to Lgi4LacZ/LacZ NCSCs.
To test whether ADAM22 mediates the effect of Lgi4 on enteric gliogenesis in vivo, we cut sections through the guts of E18.5 Adam22−/−Lgi4LacZ/LacZ compound mutant mice as well as Adam22−/− and Lgi4LacZ/LacZ single mutant mice. We observed significant reductions in the number of glia per section from Adam22−/−Lgi4LacZ/LacZ compound mutant mice, Adam22−/− mice, and Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice as compared to wild-type mice. Yet we observed no additive effect of mutations in Adam22 and Lgi4 on glial cell number. This demonstrates that ADAM22, like Lgi4, regulates enteric gliogenesis, and the similarity of the single mutant and compound mutant phenotypes suggests that Lgi4 and ADAM22 act genetically within the same pathway. Our data suggest that ADAM22 is a physiological receptor for Lgi4 in the enteric nervous system.
Our results identify a new mechanism that regulates the proliferation and maturation of glial lineage cells throughout the developing PNS. Lgi4LacZ/LacZ NCSCs from gut and DRGs formed fewer GFAP+ glia in culture (Fig. 4C) and unfractionated cells from gut, DRG, and sympathetic chain formed fewer glia-containing colonies overall (Fig. 4D, E; Suppl. Fig. 6). Consistent with these results in culture, we observed significantly fewer BFABP+ glia in sections through the E18.5 gut, DRG, and sympathetic chain (Fig. 5). Lgi4LacZ/LacZ enteric glia were also smaller, with shorter/fewer processes as compared to wild-type glia (Fig. 6B). Similar results were observed in DRGs and sympathetic ganglia where Lgi4LacZ/LacZ satellite glia failed to wrap around neurons, in contrast to wild-type satellite cells (Fig. 6C, D). Lgi4 is thus required to generate normal numbers of glia as well as mature glial morphologies throughout the PNS.
The failure to generate normal numbers of glia in the absence of Lgi4 is at least partially caused by a defect in the proliferation of glial-restricted progenitors. While neuronal-restricted progenitors were present in normal frequencies and formed normal sized colonies (Fig. 7C, F, G), glial restricted progenitors were depleted and formed smaller colonies in the absence of Lgi4 (Fig. 7B, D, E; Suppl. Fig. 6). Consistent with this, recombinant Lgi4 promoted the proliferation of glial-restricted progenitors in culture (Fig. 7I). Also, Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice had a lower frequency of BFABP+pHH3+ gut cells, but not BFABP-pHH3+ cells, as compared to littermate controls in vivo (Fig. 7K, L).
Our data suggest Lgi4 promotes the proliferation of glial-restricted progenitors as well as the differentiation of their progeny to a mature phenotype in ganglia throughout the developing PNS. Neuregulin (Nrg) is also known to promote the proliferation and maturation of glial progenitors (Dong et al., 1995). Indeed, Nrg has distinct effects on cells at multiple stages of the gliogenesis process as it also promotes glial lineage determination by NCSCs in developing nerves (Shah et al., 1994; Morrison et al., 1999; Joseph et al., 2004). One mechanism by which gliogenic factors can have distinct effects on cells at different stages of gliogenesis may be by activating distinct signaling pathways in different cells within the glial lineage. Nrg may promote proliferation by activating MAPK signaling while promoting differentiation by activating PI3-kinase signaling (Taveggia et al., 2005; Bhatheja and Field, 2006). Like Nrg, Lgi4/ADAM22 signaling might activate different intracellular signaling pathways in cells at distinct stages of gliogenesis, promoting the proliferation of immature glial progenitors while promoting the differentiation of their more mature progeny.
Our results also reveal a previously unrecognized role for ADAM22 regulating gliogenesis within the enteric nervous system and likely in other regions of the developing PNS as well. Like Lgi4, ADAM22 is expressed throughout the developing PNS (Fig. 8C) and Lgi4 binds to ADAM22 (Fig. 8A, B). Genetically, Adam22 and Lgi4 appear to function in the same pathway because Adam22−/− and Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice have similar growth retardation and premature death phenotypes, but these phenotypes are unchanged (not additive) in Adam22−/−Lgi4LacZ/LacZ compound mutant mice. Adam22−/− mice and Adam22−/−Lgi4LacZ/LacZ compound mutant mice also exhibit defects in gliogenesis in culture from gut NCSCs and in vivo within the myenteric plexus that are similar to those observed in Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice (Fig. 8F–H). These data suggest that ADAM22 regulates gliogenesis in the enteric nervous system as a receptor for Lgi4.
ADAM22 is not necessarily the only physiological receptor for Lgi4. Adam11 is expressed in some regions of the developing PNS and Adam23 is widely expressed in the developing PNS (Suppl. Fig. 8). Lgi4 could have different receptors in different regions of the PNS, different receptors on different cell types within particular regions of the PNS, or multiple receptors expressed by the same cell types. In principle, different receptors could either have different functions or redundant functions. However, there do not appear to be redundant receptors with respect to nerve myelination or gut gliogenesis as Adam22−/− mice have phenotypes that are very similar to Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice in these regions of the PNS.
Another issue concerns the identity of the cells that express ADAM22. In our hands, available antibodies against ADAM22 do not give clean staining that distinguishes between different ADAM family members. This makes it difficult to distinguish precisely which cells express ADAM22. Our analysis of in situ hybridization patterns indicates that Adam22 is expressed by neurons in multiple regions of the PNS, consistent with a recent study that observed Adam22 expression by sensory neurons in DRGs (Ozkaynak et al., 2010). It is more difficult to confidently assess whether Adam22 is expressed by glia because glia are much smaller, often cluster around neurons, and in situ hybridization does not necessarily give single-cell resolution. This raises two possibilities for ADAM22 function. One possibility is that ADAM22 is expressed by neurons, which secrete factors that promote gliogenesis throughout the PNS upon stimulation by Lgi4 secreted by glial lineage cells. The other possibility is that Lgi4 can directly act on glial restricted progenitors in some regions of the PNS. Consistent with this possibility, our in vitro results suggest that Lgi4 can directly promote the proliferation of glial restricted progenitors in colonies that do not contain neurons (Fig. 7B, D, E). Resolution of these issues will require the development of better tools to monitor ADAM22 expression.
Our results show that Lgi4/ADAM22 signaling has an unanticipated role regulating gliogenesis throughout the PNS, promoting the generation and differentiation of enteric glia and satellite cells in DRGs and sympathetic ganglia. While Lgi4 and ADAM22 were previously known to regulate peripheral nerve myelination (Sagane et al., 2005; Bermingham et al., 2006; Ozkaynak et al., 2010), they were not known to regulate PNS development outside of nerves and were not known to regulate the proliferation of glial lineage cells. By promoting the proliferation and maturation of glial lineage progenitors, Lgi4 collaborates with glial lineage determination factors such as Nrg and Notch ligands, to promote the generation of glia throughout the PNS.
Supp1
Supplementary figure 1: Generation of Lgi4LacZ mice by gene targeting. (A) To generate a predicted null mutation and to monitor the expression of Lgi4, a cassette containing green fluorescent protein (GFP), Ires-LacZ, and three tandemly repeated poly A signals, was knocked into the Lgi4 locus by homologous recombination. The cassette was inserted in frame with the start codon in the first exon in a way that eliminated the first three exons of coding sequence including the Lgi4 signal sequence. This allowed us to infer the Lgi4 expression pattern based on LacZ activity; however, we were unable to detect GFP expression. Coding sequences are indicated by black boxes. 5’- and 3’-untranslated regions are indicated by open boxes. For positive selection of ES cells that integrated the vector, a neomycin resistance cassette flanked by two FRT sites (black triangles) was included in the targeting construct. For negative selection of ES cells that randomly inserted the targeting construct, diphtheria toxin (DT) and thymidine kinase cassettes (TK) were included at both ends of the targeting vector. After mice were generated from correctly targeted ES cells, the neomycin selection cassette was deleted by mating the mice with Actin-FLPe mice (Rodriguez et al., 2000). K: KpnI endonuclease sites ; Xb: XbaI endonuclease sites; LoxP is indicated by an open triangle. (B) Correctly targeted ES cell clones are indicated by asterisks. The wild-type allele gave a band of 11kb, and the mutant allele gave a band of 7.4kb, using the 5’-probe shown in (A). Recombination was also verified using the 3’-probe indicated in (A) (data not shown). (C) PCR genotyping of the progeny from an Lgi4LacZ/+ intercross. The wild-type allele (+) was detected as a 384bp band, and the mutant allele (L) was detected as a 585bp band with a combination of three primers described in (A).
Supplementary figure 2: Lgi4LacZ/LacZ neural crest stem cells from DRG and sympathetic ganglia exhibit a gliogenic defect in culture. NCSC colonies from E13.5 DRG (A) and sympathetic ganglia (B) of control and Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice. Lgi4LacZ/LacZ NCSC colonies appeared to contain normal numbers of neurons (peripherin+) and myofibroblasts (SMA+) but many fewer GFAP+ glia and less pronounced GFAP staining. Each row of photos shows the same field of view from within a single NCSC colony stained with DAPI to identify nuclei as well as antibodies against peripherin, GFAP, and SMA.
Supplementary figure 3: Lgi4 is required for the generation of normal numbers of glia from P0 gut cells in culture. (A) Multilineage Lgi4LacZ/LacZ NCSC colonies (cultured from P0 gut) did not differ from control colonies in terms of neurons (peripherin+) or myofibroblasts (SMA+) but had fewer GFAP+ glia and less pronounced GFAP staining.
(B) Adherently cultured gut cells from P0 Lgi4LacZ/LacZ embryos formed normal numbers of total colonies, neuron (N)-containing colonies, and myofibroblast (M)-containing colonies, but significantly fewer glia (G)-containing colonies compared to littermate control cells. Cells were plated at clonal density (500 cells per 35mm dish) such that individual cells formed spatially-distinct colonies (*, p<0.05; three independent experiments.) These results are similar to those we obtained from E13.5 gut cells (Fig. 4C, D).
Supplementary figure 4: Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice have fewer satellite glia, and satellite glia with abnormal morphology, surrounding sensory neurons in DRGs. Low magnification views of P4 DRGs from control (left column) and Lgi4LacZ/LacZ (right column) mice, stained with DAPI, GFAP (satellite cells), and NeuN (neurons). Nerve entry sites are indicated by asterisks (*). Note that GFAP-positive cells adopted a honey-comb like pattern that surrounded neurons in control ganglia but in Lgi4LacZ/LacZ ganglia no such honey-comb pattern was evident, even in portions of the ganglion that were distant from nerve entry sites.
Supplementary figure 5: Recombinant Lgi4 conditioned medium. Aliquots (10µl and 1µl) of concentrated conditioned medium from parental control cells (293T) or 293T cells transfected with His-tagged Lgi4 (293-Lgi4) were immunoblotted with anti-His antibody. Recombinant Lgi4-His protein was detected as a band of approximately 60kD as expected.
Supplementary figure 6: Lgi4 is required for the proliferation of glial restricted progenitors in sympathetic and dorsal root ganglia. (A) Dissociated cells from E13.5 wild-type and Lgi4LacZ/LacZ DRGs, sympathetic ganglia, sciatic nerves, and guts were cultured at clonal density for 10 days in adherent cultures. The number of cells per glia-only colony (A) were significantly reduced in cultures of Lgi4LacZ/LacZ cells from sympathetic ganglia and guts (**, p<0.05) but not from sciatic nerve. We observed a trend toward reduced numbers of cells in glia-only colonies from Lgi4LacZ/LacZ DRG but the effect was not statistically significant.
(B) The percentage of cells within glia-only colonies that incorporated a 1 hr pulse of BrdU was significantly decreased in Lgi4LacZ/LacZ colonies (**, p< 0.05; 3 independent experiments) from DRGs and sympathetic ganglia but not from sciatic nerve. We observed a trend toward a reduced frequency of BrdU+ cells in colonies from Lgi4LacZ/LacZ gut but the effect was not statistically significant.
(C) The frequency of glia-only colonies was significantly reduced in cultures of Lgi4LacZ/LacZ cells from E13.5 sympathetic ganglia and gut (**, p<0.05). Lgi4LacZ/LacZ DRGs also exhibited a reduced frequency of glia-only colonies but the difference was not statistically significant, and no difference was observed between cultures of Lgi4LacZ/LacZ and control sciatic nerve cells.
Supplementary figure 7: We did not detect increased cell death in the PNS of Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice. Typical photos of E13.5 DRG (A) and gut (C) sections from Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice and littermate controls immunostained with activated-caspase-3 and Sox10. Neither the number of activated-caspase-3+Sox10+ cells or the number of activated-caspase-3+Sox10− cells significantly differed between Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice and controls (B, D) (n=3–4 mice/genotype with 4–6 sections/mouse; error bars in graphs show SD). Activated-caspase-3+ cells were rare in the gut.
Supplementary figure 8: Adam9, Adam11, and Adam23 expression patterns in the developing PNS. In situ hybridization for Adam9, Adam11, and Adam23 in E14.5 (A) and P0 (B) DRGs, sympathetic ganglia, and gut. M indicates the muscle layer and E indicates the epithelium in the gut. Adam23 was expressed in all three PNS tissues examined at this stage. Adam11 was detected in DRGs, in sympathetic ganglia at P0, and in gut epithelium but not in sympathetic ganglia at E14.5 or in myenteric plexus (which is in the muscle layer). We did not detect Adam9 expression in these tissues.
Supplementary figure 9: Genotypes of offspring from Lgi4LacZ/+Adam22+/− intercrosses. Genotypes of offspring from Lgi4LacZ/+Adam22+/− intercrosses at E18.5 (A), P1 (B) or P12 (C). (A) The expected frequencies of Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice and ADAM22−/− mice were observed at E18.5, indicating that there was no prenatal lethality in either single or double mutants. In the Lgi4+/+ and Lgi4LacZ/+ backgrounds, the frequency of Adam22−/− mice was lower than expected at P1 (B) and further declined by P12 (C). In the Lgi4LacZ/LacZ background, the expected frequency of Adam22−/− mice was observed at P1 and at P12. This means that the Adam22−/− and Lgi4LacZ/LacZ genotypes did not have additive effects on the premature death of mice. Similarly, in the Adam22+/+ and Adam22+/− backgrounds, the frequency of Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice was lower than expected at P1 and further declined by P12. In the Adam22−/− background, however, no additional reduction of Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice was observed.
Supplementary figure 10: Newborn Adam22−/− and Lgi4LacZ/LacZAdam22−/− mice exhibit impaired peripheral nerve myelination similar to Lgi4LacZ/LacZ mice. Sections from the sciatic nerves of P0 Adam22−/−, Lgi4LacZ/LacZ, Lgi4LacZ/LacZAdam22−/− mice exhibited a lack of Krox20 and Periaxin staining (A) as well as greatly reduced myelination by electron microscopy. In contrast, Peripherin staining was normal given the reduced diameter of the mutant nerves.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work was supported by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the National Institute of Neurological Disorder and Stroke (NS-040750-10). Flow-cytometry was partially supported by the UM-Comprehensive Cancer (UMCC) NIH CA46592. Antibody production was supported in part by NIDDK Grant NIH5P60-DK20572 to the Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center (MDRTC). Gene targeted mouse production was partially supported by the MDRTC, UMCC, and UM-Gastrointestinal Hormone Research Core Center NIH 5P30DK034933. JN was supported by a postdoctoral fellowship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. Thanks to David Adams and Martin White for flow-cytometry, and to Elizabeth Smith (UM Hybridoma Core) for antibody production, and to Elizabeth Hughes and Keith Childs for the generation of Lgi4 knockout mice. Thanks to P. Brophy (University of Edinburgh), T. Glaser (University of Michigan) and T. Muller (Max-Delbruck-Center) for sharing antibodies. Thanks to Dr. Masaki Fukada and Yoko Fukada for sharing ADAM-HA expression vectors.
  • Anderson DJ, Groves A, Lo L, Ma Q, Rao M, Shah NM, Sommer L. Cell lineage determination and the control of neuronal identity in the neural crest. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology. 1997;62:493–504. [PubMed]
  • Bermingham JR, Jr, Shearin H, Pennington J, O'Moore J, Jaegle M, Driegen S, van Zon A, Darbas A, Ozkaynak E, Ryu EJ, Milbrandt J, Meijer D. The claw paw mutation reveals a role for Lgi4 in peripheral nerve development. Nature neuroscience. 2006;9:76–84. [PubMed]
  • Bhatheja K, Field J. Schwann cells: origins and role in axonal maintenance and regeneration. The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology. 2006;38:1995–1999. [PubMed]
  • Bixby S, Kruger GM, Mosher JT, Joseph NM, Morrison SJ. Cell-intrinsic differences between stem cells from different regions of the peripheral nervous system regulate the generation of neural diversity. Neuron. 2002;35:643–656. [PubMed]
  • Bozzola JJ, Russell LD. Electron microscopy: principles and techniques for biologists. Boston: Jones & Bartlett Publishers Inc; 1992.
  • Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Court DL. Recombineering: a powerful new tool for mouse functional genomics. Nat Rev Genet. 2001;2:769–779. [PubMed]
  • Darbas A, Jaegle M, Walbeehm E, van den Burg H, Driegen S, Broos L, Uyl M, Visser P, Grosveld F, Meijer D. Cell autonomy of the mouse claw paw mutation. Developmental biology. 2004;272:470–482. [PubMed]
  • Dong Z, Brennan A, Liu N, Yarden Y, Lefkowitz G, Mirsky R, Jessen KR. Neu differentiation factor is a neuron-glia signal and regulates survival, proliferation and maturation of rat Schwann cell precursors. Neuron. 1995;15:585–596. [PubMed]
  • Fraser SE, Bronner-Fraser M. Migrating neural crest cells in the trunk of the avian embryo are multipotent. Development (Cambridge, England) 1991;112:913–920. [PubMed]
  • Fukata Y, Adesnik H, Iwanaga T, Bredt DS, Nicoll RA, Fukata M. Epilepsy-related ligand/receptor complex LGI1 and ADAM22 regulate synaptic transmission. Science (New York, NY. 2006;313:1792–1795. [PubMed]
  • Gillespie CS, Sherman DL, Blair GE, Brophy PJ. Periaxin, a novel protein of myelinating Schwann cells with a possible role in axonal ensheathment. Neuron. 1994;12:497–508. [PubMed]
  • Hagedorn L, Paratore C, Brugnoli G, Baert JL, Mercader N, Suter U, Sommer L. Institute of Cell Biology SFIoTETHHCHS. The Ets domain transcription factor Erm distinguishes rat satellite glia from Schwann cells and is regulated in satellite cells by neuregulin signaling. Developmental biology. 2000;219(1):44–58. [PubMed]
  • Henion PD, Weston JA. Timing and pattern of cell fate restrictions in the neural crest lineage. Development (Cambridge, England) 1997;124:4351–4359. [PubMed]
  • Hughes ED, Qu YY, Genik SJ, Lyons RH, Pacheco CD, Lieberman AP, Samuelson LC, Nasonkin IO, Camper SA, Van Keuren ML, Saunders TL. Genetic variation in C57BL/6 ES cell lines and genetic instability in the Bruce4 C57BL/6 ES cell line. Mamm Genome. 2007;18:549–558. [PubMed]
  • Iwashita T, Kruger GM, Pardal R, Kiel MJ, Morrison SJ. Hirschsprung disease is linked to defects in neural crest stem cell function. Science (New York, NY. 2003;301:972–976. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Joseph NM, Mukouyama YS, Mosher JT, Jaegle M, Crone SA, Dormand EL, Lee KF, Meijer D, Anderson DJ, Morrison SJ. Neural crest stem cells undergo multilineage differentiation in developing peripheral nerves to generate endoneurial fibroblasts in addition to Schwann cells. Development (Cambridge, England) 2004;131:5599–5612. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Joseph NM, Mosher JT, Buchstaller J, Snider P, McKeever PE, Lim M, Conway SJ, Parada LF, Zhu Y, Morrison SJ. The loss of Nf1 transiently promotes self-renewal but not tumorigenesis by neural crest stem cells. Cancer cell. 2008;13:129–140. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kontgen F, Suss G, Stewart C, Steinmetz M, Bluethmann H. Targeted disruption of the MHC Class-II AA gene in C57BL/6 mice. International Immunology. 1993;5:957–964. [PubMed]
  • Koszowski A, Owens G, Levinson S. The effect of the mouse mutation Claw Paw on myelination and nodal frequency in sciatic nerves. Journal of Neuroscience. 1998;18 [PubMed]
  • Kruger GM, Mosher JT, Bixby S, Joseph N, Iwashita T, Morrison SJ. Neural crest stem cells persist in the adult gut but undergo changes in self-renewal, neuronal subtype potential, and factor responsiveness. Neuron. 2002;35:657–669. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kurtz A, Zimmer A, Schnutgen F, Bruning G, Spener F, Muller T. The expression pattern of a novel gene encoding brain-fatty acid binding protein correlates with neuronal and glial cell development. Development (Cambridge, England) 1994;120:2637–2649. [PubMed]
  • Le Douarin NM. Cell line segregation during peripheral nervous system ontogeny. Science (New York, NY. 1986;231:1515–1522. [PubMed]
  • Liu P, Jenkins NA, Copeland NG. A highly efficient recombineering-based method for generating conditional knockout mutations. Genome Res. 2003;13:476–484. [PubMed]
  • Meyer R, Birchmeier C. Multiple essential functions of neuregulin in development. Nature. 1995;378:386–390. [PubMed]
  • Molofsky AV, He S, Bydon M, Morrison SJ, Pardal R. Bmi-1 promotes neural stem cell self-renewal and neural development but not mouse growth and survival by repressing the p16Ink4a and p19Arf senescence pathways. Genes & development. 2005;19:1432–1437. [PubMed]
  • Morrison SJ, White PM, Zock C, Anderson DJ. Prospective identification, isolation by flow cytometry, and in vivo self-renewal of multipotent mammalian neural crest stem cells. Cell. 1999;96:737–749. [PubMed]
  • Morrison SJ, Perez S, Verdi JM, Hicks C, Weinmaster G, Anderson DJ. Transient Notch activation initiates an irreversible switch from neurogenesis to gliogenesis by neural crest stem cells. Cell. 2000;101:499–510. [PubMed]
  • Mosher JT, Yeager KJ, Kruger GM, Joseph NM, Hutchin ME, Dlugosz AA, Morrison SJ. Intrinsic differences among spatially distinct neural crest stem cells in terms of migratory properties, fate determination, and ability to colonize the enteric nervous system. Developmental biology. 2006;303:1–15. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nishino J, Kim I, Chada K, Morrison SJ. Hmga2 promotes neural stem cell self-renewal in young but not old mice by reducing p16Ink4a and p19Arf Expression. Cell. 2008;135:227–239. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ozkaynak E, Abello G, Jaegle M, van Berge L, Hamer D, Kegel L, Driegen S, Sagane K, Bermingham JR, Jr, Meijer D. Adam22 is a major neuronal receptor for Lgi4-mediated Schwann cell signaling. J Neurosci. 2010;30:3857–3864. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Paratore C, Goerich DE, Suter U, Wegner M, Sommer L. Survival and glial fate acquisition of neural crest cells are regulated by an interplay between the transcription factor Sox10 and extrinsic combinatorial signaling. Development (Cambridge, England) 2001;128:3949–3961. [PubMed]
  • Riethmacher D, Sonnerberg-Riethmacher E, Brinkmann V, Yamaai T, Lewin GR, Birchmeier C. Severe neuropathies in mice with targeted mutations in the erbB3 receptor. Nature. 1997;389:725–730. [PubMed]
  • Rodriguez CI, Buchholz F, Galloway J, Sequerra R, Kasper J, Ayala R, Stewart AF, Dymecki SM. High-efficiency deleter mice show that FLPe is an alternative to Cre-loxP. Nature genetics. 2000;25:139–140. [PubMed]
  • Sagane K, Ishihama Y, Sugimoto H. LGI1 and LGI4 bind to ADAM22, ADAM23 and ADAM11. International journal of biological sciences. 2008;4:387–396. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sagane K, Hayakawa K, Kai J, Hirohashi T, Takahashi E, Miyamoto N, Ino M, Oki T, Yamazaki K, Nagasu T. Ataxia and peripheral nerve hypomyelination in ADAM22-deficient mice. BMC neuroscience. 2005;6:33. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shah NM, Anderson DJ. Integration of multiple instructive cues by neural crest stem cells reveals cell-intrinsic biases in relative growth factor responsiveness. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1997;94:11369–11374. [PubMed]
  • Shah NM, Marchionni MA, Isaacs I, Stroobant P, Anderson DJ. Glial growth factor restricts mammalian neural crest stem cells to a glial fate. Cell. 1994;77:349–360. [PubMed]
  • Stemple DL, Anderson DJ. Isolation of a stem cell for neurons and glia from the mammalian neural crest. Cell. 1992;71:973–985. [PubMed]
  • Taveggia C, Zanazzi G, Petrylak A, Yano H, Rosenbluth J, Einheber S, Xu X, Esper RM, Loeb JA, Shrager P, Chao MV, Falls DL, Role L, Salzer JL. Neuregulin-1 type III determines the ensheathment fate of axons. Neuron. 2005;47:681–694. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Taylor MK, Yeager K, Morrison SJ. Physiological Notch signaling promotes gliogenesis in the developing peripheral and central nervous systems. Development (Cambridge, England) 2007;134:2435–2447. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Topilko P, Murphy P, Charnay P. Embryonic development of Schwann cells - multiple roles for neuregulins along the pathway. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1997;8:71–75. [PubMed]
  • Wakamatsu Y, Maynard TM, Weston JA. Fate determination of neural crest cells by Notch-mediated lateral inhibition and asymmetrical cell division during gangliogenesis. Development (Cambridge, England) 2000;127:2811–2821. [PubMed]