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Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptHHS Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
J Morphol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 March 15.
Published in final edited form as:
J Morphol. 2010 December; 271(12): 1501–1508.
doi: 10.1002/jmor.10890


Directional asymmetry of other limb metrics (joints and levers)

Hind limbVectorDiff %P valueFore limbVectorDiff %P value
Femur headR > L0.47*OlecranonR > L0.8***
PatelaR > L2.6***Elbow JointR > L3.4**
Tibia headR > L1.3***PisiformR > L2.4***
Heel heightL > R0.5*
Tarsal jointR > L0.8**
CalcaneusL > R0.5***

P value:

*P < 0.002
**P < 10−7
***P < 10−20

Left/Right differences for various joint and lever metrics. The vector column indicates the direction of the magnitude difference. The Diff % column shows the Left/Right differences as a percentage of the mean: (abs(xlxr)/mean(xr,xl)) × 100%. Three levels of paired t-test significance are indicated. See Supporting Information Figure 1 for radiographs showing the endpoints used for each measurement.