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Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptHHS Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
J Morphol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 March 15.
Published in final edited form as:
J Morphol. 2010 December; 271(12): 1501–1508.
doi: 10.1002/jmor.10890


Directional asymmetry of limb bone widths

BoneInner diameter
Outer diameter
Cortical thickness
Vector% DiffP valueVector% DiffP valueVector% DiffP value
Fore leg
HumerusR > L1.1**L > R1.5***L > R4.9***
RadiusR > L2.3**R > L1.3**R > L0.7ns
UlnaR > L8.2***R > L5.1***R > L3.9***
Hind leg
FemurL > R12***L > R3.2***R > L8.9***
TibiaL > R4.1***R > L1.1**R > L6.3***

P value: ns: not significant

**P < 10−7
***P < 10−20

Three aspects of bone width are presented: inner diameter, outer diameter, and cortical thickness (outer diameter – inner diameter). The vector column indicates the direction of the magnitude difference. The Diff % column shows the Left/Right differences as a percentage of the mean: (abs(xlxr)/mean(xr,xl)) × 100%. Three levels of paired t-test significance are indicated. See Supporting Information Figure 1 for radiographs showing the endpoints used for each measurement.