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Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptHHS Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
J Morphol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 March 15.
Published in final edited form as:
J Morphol. 2010 December; 271(12): 1501–1508.
doi: 10.1002/jmor.10890


Directional asymmetry of limb bone lengths

VectorDiff %P value
Fore leg
HumerusR > L1.4***
RadiusL > R1.6***
UlnaL > R1.6***
MetacarpalR > L0.7***
PhalangesR > L0.7***
Hind leg
FemurL > R1.2***
TibiaL > R0.2**
MetatarsalL > R0.2**
Foot phalang.L > R1***

P value:

**P < 10−7
***P < 10−20

The vector column indicates the direction of the magnitude difference. The Diff % column shows the Left/Right differences as a percentage of the mean: (abs(xlxr)/mean(xr,xl)) × 100%. Two levels of paired t-test significance are indicated. Phalanges and metacarpals are averages from the middle three digits. See Supporting Information Figure 1 for radiographs showing the endpoints used for each measurement.