1. Thompson J, Rankin H, Ashcroft GW, Yates CM, McQueen JK, Cummings SW. The treatment of depression in general practice: a comparison of L-tryptophan, amitriptyline and a combination of L-tryptophan and amitriptyline with placebo. Psychol Med. 1982;12:741–751. [PubMed]
3. Scott MG. The contributions of physical activity to psychological development. Res Q. 1960;31:307–320.
4. Biddle S, Fox K, Edmund L. Physical activity in primary care in England. London: Health Education Authority; 1994.
5. Lepore SJ. Expressive writing moderates the relation between intrusive thoughts and depressive symptoms. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1997;73:1030–1037. [PubMed] 6. Mynors-Wallis LM, Gath DH, Baker F. Randomised controlled trial of problem solving treatment, antidepressant medication, and combined treatment for major depression in primary care. BMJ. 2000;320:26–30. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
7. Leith LM. Foundations of exercise and mental health. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology; 1994. pp. 17–44.
8. Thornen P, Floras JS, Hoffman P, Seals DR. Endorphins and exercise: physiological mechanisms and clinical implications. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990;22:417–428. [PubMed] 9. North TC, McCullagh P, Vu Tran Z. Effect of exercise on depression. Exerc Sports Sci Rev. 1990;80:379–416. [PubMed]
10. Carlson DL. Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin; 1991. The effects of exercise on depression: a review and meta-regression analysis [dissertation]
11. Craft LL, Landers DM. The effects of exercise on clinical depression and depression resulting from mental illness: a meta-regression analysis. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 1998;20:339–357.
12. Moher D, Cook DJ, Eastwood S, Olkin I, Rennie D, Stroup DF.for the QUOROM Group. Improving the quality of reports of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials: the QUOROM statement Lancet 1999. 3541896–1900.1900. [PubMed] 13. Schulz KF, Chalmers I, Hayes RJ, Altman DG. Empirical evidence of bias. Dimensions of methodological quality associated with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials. JAMA. 1995;273:408–412. [PubMed]
14. Rosenthal R. Parametric measures of effect size. In: Cooper H, Hedges LV, editors. The handbook of research synthesis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation; 1994.
15. DerSimonian R, Laird N. Meta-regression analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials. 1986;7:177–188. [PubMed] 16. Berlin JA, Laird NM, Sacks HS, Chalmers TC. A comparison of statistical methods for combining events rates from clinical trials. Stat Med. 1989;8:141–151. [PubMed]
17. Antonelli F. Sport and depression therapy. Int J Sport Psychol. 1982;13:187–193.
18. Biddle S. Exercise and psychosocial health. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1995;66:292–297. [PubMed] 19. Biddle S. Exercise and the treatment of depression. Br J Hosp Med. 1989;42:267. [PubMed]
20. Burbach FR. The efficacy of physical activity interventions within mental health services: anxiety and depressive disorders. J Ment Health. 1997;6:543–566.
21. Broocks A, Meyer TF, George A, Pekrun G, Hillmer-Vogel U, Hajak G, et al. Value of sports in treatment of psychiatric illness. Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie. 1997;47:379–393. . (In German.) [PubMed] 22. Byrne A, Byrne DG. The effect of exercise on depression, anxiety and other mood states: a review. J Psychosom Res. 1993;37:565–574. [PubMed] 23. De Coverley Veale DMW. Exercise and mental health. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1987;76:113–120. [PubMed]
24. Dishman RK. Physical activity and public health: mental health. Quest. 1995;47:362–385.
25. Glenister D. Exercise and mental health: a review. J R Soc Health. 1996;116:7–13. [PubMed] 26. Gleser J, Mendelberg H. Exercise and sport in mental health: a review of the literature. Isr J Psychiatry Related Sci. 1990;27:99–112. [PubMed] 27. Hales RE, Travis TW. Exercise as a treatment option for anxiety and depressive disorders. Milit Med. 1987;152:299–302. [PubMed] 28. LaFontaine TP, DiLorenzo TM, Frensch PA, Stucky-Ropp RC, Bargman EP, McDonald DG. Aerobic exercise and mood. Sports Med. 1992;13:160–170. [PubMed]
29. Martinsen EW. Proceedings of sport, health psychology and exercise symposium. London: Sports Council and Health Education Authority; 1988. Exercise intervention studies in patients with anxiety and depressive disorders [abstract] pp. 77–83.
30. Martinsen EW. Therapeutic implications of exercise for clinically anxious and depressed patients. Int J Sport Psychol. 1993;24:185–199.
31. Martinsen EW. The role of aerobic exercise in the treatment of depression. Stress Med. 1987;3:93–100.
32. Martinsen EW. Physical activity and depression: clinical experience. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1994;377(suppl):23–7S. [PubMed] 33. Moore KA, Blumenthal JA. Exercise training as an alternative treatment for depression among older adults. Altern Ther Health Med. 1998;4:48–56. [PubMed]
34. Pezzarossa B, Fortuna E. Physical activity and psychopathological variables. Analytic Psychother Psychopathology. 1991;10:163–168.
35. Plante TG. Getting physical: does exercise help in the treatment of psychiatric disorders? J Psychos Nurs Ment Health Serv. 1996;34:39–43. [PubMed] 36. Raglin JS. Exercise and mental health. Beneficial and detrimental effects. Sports Med. 1990;9:323–329. [PubMed] 37. Salmon P. Psychiatric benefits of physical exercise. Br J Hosp Med. 1990;43:107. [PubMed] 38. Sachs ML. Running therapy for the depressed client. Top Clin Nurs. 1981;3:77–86. [PubMed]
39. Sachs ML. Exercise and running: effects on anxiety, depression and psychology. Humanistic Education Dev. 1982;21:51–57.
40. Scully D, Kremer J, Meade MM, Graham R, Dudgeon K. Physical exercise and psychological well being: a critical review. Br J Sports Med. 1998;32:111–120. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
41. Simons AD, McGowan CR, Epstein LH, Kupfer DJ. Exercise as a treatment for depression: an update. Clin Psychol Rev. 1985;5:553–568.
42. Sonstroem RJ. The psychological benefits of exercise. Med Health R I. 1997;80:295–296. [PubMed]
43. Van Coppenolle H, Pieters G, Knapen J, Peuskens J. Psychomotor therapy in depressive patients. Issues Special Education Rehabil. 1993;8:29–34.
44. Weinstein WS, Meyers AW. Running as treatment for depression: is it worth it? J Sport Psych. 1983;5:288–301.
45. Weyerer S, Kupfer B. Physical exercise and psychological health. Sports Med. 1994;17:108–116. [PubMed]
46. Auchus MP, Kaslow NJ. Weight lifting therapy: a preliminary report. Psychosoc Rehabil J. 1994;18:99–102.
47. Blue FR. Aerobic running as a treatment for moderate depression. Percept Motor Skills. 1979;48:228. [PubMed] 48. Conroy RW, Smith K, Felthous AR. The value of exercise on a psychiatric hospital unit. Hosp Community. 1982;33:641–645. [PubMed]
49. D'Amato G. Hempstead, NY: Hofstra University; 1990. The relative efficacy of structured reminiscence and physical exercise on clinically depressed geriatric inpatients [dissertation]
50. Doyne EJ, Chambless DL, Beutler LE. Aerobic exercise as a treatment for depression in women. Behav Ther. 1983;14:434–440.
51. Fetsch RJ, Sprinkle RL. Effects of running on depressed adults. Am Ment Health Counselors Assoc J. 1983;5:75–84.
52. Giardinelli L, Di Bernardo M, Aiazzi V, Basile V. Depression and psychomotor retardation: exercise intervention combined with a pharmacological treatment of inpatients. Minerva Psichiatr. 1996;37:179–188. . (In Italian.)
53. Hartz GW, Wallace WL, Cayton TG. Effect of aerobic conditioning upon mood in clinically depressed men and women: a preliminary investigation. Percept Motor Skills. 1982;55:1217–1218. [PubMed]
54. Kaplan K, Mendelson LB, Dubroff MP. The effect of a jogging program on psychiatric inpatients with symptoms of depression. Occup Ther J Res. 1983;3:173–175.
55. Martinsen EW, Sandvik L, Klobjornsrud O-B. Aerobic exercise in the treatment of nonpsychotic mental disorders: an exploratory study. Nord Psykiatr Tidsskr. 1989;43:521–529.
56. Palleschi L, De Gennaro E, Sottosanti G, Vetta F, Ponzoni S, Lato PFA, et al. The role of exercise training in aged subjects with anxiety-depression syndrome. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 1998;6(suppl):381–34S.
57. Pappas G, Golin S, Meyer DL. Reducing symptoms of depression with exercise [letter] Psychosomatics. 1990;31:112–113. [PubMed] 58. Rief W, Hermanutz M. Responses to activation and rest in patients with panic disorder and major depression. Br J Clin Psychol. 1996;35:605–616. [PubMed] 59. Stewart NJ, McMullen LM, Rubin LD. Movement therapy with depressed inpatients: a randomised multiple single case design. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 1994;8:22–29. [PubMed] 60. Williams JM, Getty D. Effect of levels of exercise on psychological mood states, physical fitness and plasma beta-endorphin. Percept Mot Skills. 1986;63:1099–1105. [PubMed]
61. Hannaford CP, Harrell EH, Cox K. Psychophysiological effects of a running program on depression and anxiety in a psychiatric population. Psychological Record. 1988;38:37–48.
62. Netz Y, Yaretzki A, Salganik I, Jacob T, Finkeltov B, Argov E. The effect of supervised physical activity on cognitive and affective state of geriatric and psychogeriatric in-patients. Clin Gerontol. 1994;15:47–56.
63. Pelham TW, Compagna PD, Ritvo PG, Birnnie WA. The effects of exercise therapy on clients in a psychiatric rehabilitation program. Psychosoc Rehabil J. 1993;16:75–83.
64. Perri S, II, Temper DI. The effects of an aerobic exercise programme on psychological variables in older adults. Int J Aging Hum Dev. 1985;20:1984–1985. [PubMed] 65. Roth DL, Holmes DS. Influence of aerobic exercise training and relaxation training on physical and psychological health following stressful life events. Psychosom Med. 1987;49:355–365. [PubMed] 66. DiLornzo TM, Bargman EP, Stucky-Ropp R, Brassington GS, Frensch PA, LaFontaine T. Long term effects of aerobic exercise on psychological outcomes. Prev Med. 1999;28:75–85. [PubMed] 67. Emery CF, Gatz A. Psychological and cognitive effects of an exercise program for community-residing older adults. Gerontologist. 1990;30:184–188. [PubMed] 68. Emery CF, Blumenthal JA. Perceived change among participants in an exercise program for older adults. Gerontologist. 1990;30:516–521. [PubMed]
69. Bosscher RJ. Running and mixed physical exercises with depressed psychiatric patients. Int J Sport Psychol. 1993;24:170–184.
70. Martinsen EW. Proceedings of sport, health psychology and exercise symposium. London: Sports Council and Health Education Authority; 1988. Comparing aerobic and non-aerobic forms of exercise in the treatment of clinical depression: a randomised trial [abstract] pp. 84–95.
71. Martinsen EW, Hoffart A, Solberg O. Comparing aerobic with nonaerobic forms of exercise in the treatment of clinical depression: a randomised trial. Compr Psychiatry. 1989;30:324–331. [PubMed] 72. Sexton H, Maere A, Dahl NH. Exercise intensity and reduction in neurotic symptoms. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1989;80:231–235. [PubMed] 73. Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA, Moore KA, Craighead WE, Herman S, Khatri P, et al. Effects of exercise training on older patients with major depression. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:2349–2356. [PubMed] 74. Singh NA, Clements KM, Fiatarone MA. A randomized controlled trial of progressive resistance training in depressed elders. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1997;52(1):M27–M35. [PubMed] 75. Veale D, Le Fevre K, Pantelis C, de Souza V, Mann A. Aerobic exercise in the adjunctive treatment of depression: a randomised controlled trial. J R Soc Med. 1992;85:541–544. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
76. Veale D, Le Fevre K. Proceedings of sport, health psychology and exercise symposium. London: Sports Council and Health Education Authority; 1988. Aerobic exercise in the adjunctive treatment of depression: a randomised controlled trial [abstract] pp. 106–111.
77. McNeil JK, LeBlanc EM, Joyner M. The effect of exercise on depressive symptoms in the moderately depressed elderly. Psychol Aging. 1991;6:487–488. [PubMed]
78. Mutrie N. Proceedings of sport, health psychology and exercise symposium. London: Sports Council and Health Education Authority; 1988. Exercise as a treatment for moderate depression in the UK National Health Service[abstract] pp. 96–105.
79. Doyne EJ, Ossip-Klein DJ, Bowman ED, Osborn KM, McDoughall-Wilson IB, Neimeyer RA. Running versus weight lifting in the treatment of depression. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1987;55:748–754. [PubMed]
80. Fremont J, Wilcoxon Craighead L. Aerobic exercise and cognitive therapy in the treatment of dysphoric moods. Cognitive Ther Res. 1987;11:241–251.
81. Epstein D. Reno: University of Nevada; 1986. Aerobic activity versus group cognitive therapy: an evaluative study of contrasting interventions for the alleviation of clinical depression [dissertation]
82. Martinsen EW, Medhus A, Sandvik L. Effects of aerobic exercise on depression: a controlled study. BMJ. 1985;291:109. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
83. Martinsen EW, Medhus A. Adherence to exercise and patients' evaluation of physical exercise in a comprehensive treatment programme for depression. Nord Psykiatr Tidsskr. 1989;43:411–415.
84. Klein MH, Greist JH, Gurman RA, Neimeyer RA, Lesser DP, Bushnell NJ, et al. A comparative outcome study of group psychotherapy vs. exercise treatments for depression. Int J Ment Health. 1985;13:148–177.
85. McCann L, Holmes DS. Influence of aerobic exercise on depression. J Pers Social Psychol. 1984;46:1142–1147. [PubMed]
86. Reuter M, Mutrie N, Harris DV. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University; 1984. Running as an adjunct to counseling in the treatment of depression [dissertation]
87. Hess-Homeier MJ. Missoula: University of Montana; 1981. A comparison of Beck's cognitive therapy and jogging as treatments for depression [dissertation]
88. Greist JH, Klein MH, Eischens RJ, Faris J, Gurman AS, Morgan WP. Running as treatment for depression. Compr Psychiatry. 1979;20:41–54. [PubMed] 89. Fox K, Biddle S, Edmunds L, Bowler I, Killoran AL. Physical activity promotion through primary health care in England. Br J Gen Pract. 1997;47:367–369. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 90. Hotopf M, Lewis G, Normand C. Putting trials on trial—the costs and consequences of small trials in depression: a systematic review of methodology. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1997;51:354–358. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 91. Streiner DL, Joffe R. The adequacy of reporting randomized controlled trials in the evaluation of antidepressants. Can J Psychiatry. 1998;43:1026–1030. [PubMed] 92. Fentem PH. Benefits of exercise in health and disease. BMJ. 1994;308:1291–1295. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 93. Berlin JA, Colditz GA. A meta-regression analysis of physical activity in the prevention of coronary heart disease. Am J Epidemiol. 1990;132:612–628. [PubMed]