Six weeks posttrauma, 1 out of 26 participants (4%) met full criteria for PTSD secondary to the index trauma and an additional 11 (42%) met criteria for partial PTSD. The CAPS-CA total scores for the index trauma ranged from 0 to 71 at 6-weeks (M = 24.4, SD = 19.0), with the number of clinically significant symptoms endorsed ranging from 0 – 12 (M = 4, SD = 3). Eight participants reported prior trauma experiences including motor vehicle accidents, burglary, assault, sexual abuse/assault, and parent partner violence (prior trauma CAPS-CA M = 4.1, SD = 8.9, range 0 – 27). Participant race, parent income, and parent educational attainment were not related to CAPS-CA scores at follow-up. Girls reported significantly greater CAPS-CA scores than boys, F (1, 25) = 8.11, p < .01. Analyses revealed no association between weight and PTSD symptoms.
summarizes CAPS-CA total scores by treatment group. As only one participant met full criteria for PTSD, full and subthreshold groups were combined for Pearson Chi-Square analyses. Findings supported no significant treatment group differences in diagnostic status, χ2 < 1. Given observed gender effects, we also conducted identical regressions with the addition of a Gender × Treatment interaction term. Gender and treatment condition did not interact to predict PTSD symptoms.
PTSD Symptom Severity in Propranolol versus Placebo Group
To examine heart rate responses to the trauma narrative, we conducted linear regression analyses on heart rate data collected during the trauma narrative and over the course of 20 minutes following the trauma narrative. Gender and age were not included in the regression model as they were accounted for by the standardization of cardiovascular measures. There were no treatment group differences in heart rate measured during or following the trauma narrative.
Given the pilot nature of the study, we repeated analyses including only adherent participants (n = 20). Pearson Chi-Square analyses were not possible due to cell size restraints. As shown in , hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed no treatment group differences in PTSD symptoms. A significant interaction effect was found for gender and treatment. Follow-up regression analyses revealed a nonsignificant, but suggestive, pattern of decreased PTSD symptoms reported by boys in the propranolol group relative to the placebo group, R2 = .32, p = .09. In contrast, girls in the propranolol group reported more PTSD symptoms than girls in the placebo group, R2 = .44, p = .05.
Hierarchical Linear Regression Analyses Predicting 6-week PTSD in Adherent Youth
Again, heart rate measured during and following the trauma narrative was unrelated to treatment condition in linear regression analyses controlling for prior trauma exposure.