Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. In most instances, PD is thought to result from a complex interaction between multiple genetic and environmental factors, though rare monogenic forms of the disease do exist. Mutations in 6 genes (SNCA, LRRK2, PRKN, DJ1, PINK1, and ATP13A2) have conclusively been shown to cause familial parkinsonism. In addition, common variation in 3 genes (MAPT, LRRK2, and SNCA) and loss-of-function mutations in GBA have been well-validated as susceptibility factors for PD. The function of these genes and their contribution to PD pathogenesis remain to be fully elucidated. The prevalence, incidence, clinical manifestations, and genetic components of PD are discussed in this review.
Keywords: genetics, neurodegeneration, Parkinson disease