The enhancements made to the CPS differentially impact the uninsurance rate. Overall, the imputation of the verification question decreases uninsurance estimates in 1990–1999 at a rate similar to that observed by Davern et al. (2003)
, the IHS change increases uninsurance rates slightly in 1996 and 1997, and the SCHIP edit has no impact on the uninsurance rate. While the household edit indicator decreases the uninsurance rate, this is reflected in both the enhanced and the nonenhanced CPS and thus has no differential impact. The reweighting of the data to exclude those cases that had the full supplement imputation decreased the uninsurance rate in all years and the smoothing to decennial control totals differentially impacted subpopulations.
In aggregate, the enhancements result in approximately a 1 percentage point gain in the portion of the population counted as having health insurance coverage. This varies somewhat over time and by age. Coverage gains are slightly higher for adults than for children (an average of 1.2 percentage point gain for adults compared with 1.0 percentage point for children averaged across years).
presents the rate of private coverage for adults and children in the United States over the last two decades using the enhanced and the nonenhanced data. Children have consistently had lower rates of private coverage than adults. For both adults and children, we see relatively parallel decreases over the past decade using both data sources. However, with the enhanced data, we see larger decreases in coverage than that which is observed using the nonenhanced data. For children, there is an 11.2 percentage point decrease in private coverage from 1989 to 2008 using the enhanced data compared with a 9.6 percentage point decrease using the nonenhanced data.
Private Health Insurance Coverage 1989–2008, United States
depicts rates of public coverage by age over the last two decades. Consistently, rates of public coverage have been higher for children than for adults. While the estimates of public coverage are relatively close using the two data sources, larger gains in coverage over this time period are seen for children using the enhanced data (a 14.0 percentage point increase compared with a 13.7 percentage point increase). The opposite is observed for adults: a 3.1 percentage point gain with the enhanced data compared with a 3.4 percentage point gain with the nonenhanced data.
Public Health Insurance Coverage 1989–2008, United States
depicts rates of uninsurance for children and adults over the same time period. Using the enhanced data, we see smaller decreases in the uninsurance rate over the past two decades than using the nonenhanced data (3.2 percentage points compared with 3.7 percentage points). For adults, we see larger increases in the uninsurance rate with the enhanced data (4.3 percentage point more uninsured compared with 3.8 percentage point more).
Uninsurance Rate 1989–2008, United States