The authors report the first indigenous case of Plasmodium ovale infection from Bangladesh. The diagnosis was confirmed by PCR and sequence analysis. The patient had neither been outside of the country nor ever received blood transfusions. The authors concluded that there was evidence for a local transmission of P ovale malaria in Bangladesh. P ovale malaria should therefore always be considered a potential differential diagnosis in the indigenous population as well as travellers and migrants returning from South Asia, possibly up to years after their return.