To determine the toxicity profile, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of cediranib administered orally, once daily, continuously in children and adolescents with solid tumors.
Patients and Methods
Children and adolescents with refractory solid tumors, excluding primary brain tumors, were eligible. DLT at the starting dose of 12 mg/m2/d resulted in de-escalation to 8 mg/m2/d and subsequent re-escalation to 12 and 17 mg/m2/d. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies were performed during cycle 1. Response was evaluated using WHO criteria.
Sixteen patients (median age, 15 years; range, 8 to 18 years) were evaluable for toxicity. DLTs (grade 3 nausea, vomiting, fatigue in one; hypertension and prolonged corrected QT interval in another) occurred in patients initially enrolled at 12 mg/m2/d. Subsequently, 8 mg/m2/d was well tolerated in three patients. An additional seven patients were enrolled at 12 mg/m2/d; one had DLT (grade 3 diarrhea). At 17 mg/m2/d, two of four patients had DLTs (grade 3 nausea; intolerable grade 2 fatigue). Non–dose-limiting toxicities included left ventricular dysfunction, elevated thyroid stimulating hormone, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia, weight loss, and headache. The MTD of cediranib was 12 mg/m2/d (adult fixed dose equivalent, 20 mg). At 12 mg/m2/d, the median area under the plasma concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞) was 900 ng·h/mL, which is similar to adults receiving 20 mg. Objective responses were observed in patients with Ewing sarcoma, synovial sarcoma, and osteosarcoma.
The recommended monotherapy dose of cediranib for children with extracranial solid tumors is 12 mg/m2/d administered orally, once daily, continuously. A phase II study is in development.