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World J Gastrointest Surg. 2009 November 30; 1(1): 73–76.
Published online 2009 November 30. doi:  10.4240/wjgs.v1.i1.73
PMCID: PMC2999118

Instructions to authors


World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery (World J Gastrointest Surg, WJGS, online ISSN 1948-9366, DOI: 10.4240), is a monthly, open-access (OA), peer-reviewed journal supported by an editorial board of 328 experts in gastrointestinal surgery from 35 countries.

The biggest advantage of the OA model is that it provides free, full-text articles in PDF and other formats for experts and the public without registration, which eliminates the obstacle that traditional journals possess and usually delays the speed of the propagation and communication of scientific research results. The open access model has been proven to be a true approach that may achieve the ultimate goal of the journals, i.e. the maximization of the value to the readers, authors and society.

The role of academic journals is to exhibit the scientific levels of a country, a university, a center, a department, and even a scientist, and build an important bridge for communication between scientists and the public. As we all know, the significance of the publication of scientific articles lies not only in disseminating and communicating innovative scientific achievements and academic views, as well as promoting the application of scientific achievements, but also in formally recognizing the “priority” and “copyright” of innovative achievements published, as well as evaluating research performance and academic levels. So, to realize these desired attributes of WJGS and create a well-recognized journal, the following four types of personal benefits should be maximized. The maximization of personal benefits refers to the pursuit of the maximum personal benefits in a well-considered optimal manner without violation of the laws, ethical rules and the benefits of others. (1) Maximization of the benefits of editorial board members: The primary task of editorial board members is to give a peer review of an unpublished scientific article via online office system to evaluate its innovativeness, scientific and practical values and determine whether it should be published or not. During peer review, editorial board members can also obtain cutting-edge information in that field at first hand. As leaders in their field, they have priority to be invited to write articles and publish commentary articles. We will put peer reviewers’ names and affiliations along with the article they reviewed in the journal to acknowledge their contribution; (2) Maximization of the benefits of authors: Since WJGS is an open-access journal, readers around the world can immediately download and read, free of charge, high-quality, peer-reviewed articles from WJGS official website, thereby realizing the goals and significance of the communication between authors and peers as well as public reading; (3) Maximization of the benefits of readers: Readers can read or use, free of charge, high-quality peer-reviewed articles without any limits, and cite the arguments, viewpoints, concepts, theories, methods, results, conclusion or facts and data of pertinent literature so as to validate the innovativeness, scientific and practical values of their own research achievements, thus ensuring that their articles have novel arguments or viewpoints, solid evidence and correct conclusion; and (4) Maximization of the benefits of employees: It is an iron law that a first-class journal is unable to exist without first-class editors, and only first-class editors can create a first-class academic journal. We insist on strengthening our team cultivation and construction so that every employee, in an open, fair and transparent environment, could contribute their wisdom to edit and publish high-quality articles, thereby realizing the maximization of the personal benefits of editorial board members, authors and readers, and yielding the greatest social and economic benefits.

The major task of WJGS is to report rapidly the most recent advances in basic and clinical research on gastrointestinal oncology. The topics of WJGS cover the carcinogenesis, tumorigenesis, metastasis, diagnosis, prevention, prognosis, clinical manifestations, nutritional support, molecular mechanisms, and therapy of benign and malignant tumors of the digestive tract. This cover epidemiology, etiology, immunology, molecular oncology, cytology, pathology, genetics, genomics, proteomics, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, nutrition, diagnosis and therapeutics. This journal will also provide extensive and timely review articles on oncology.

The columns in the issues of WJGS will include: (1) Editorial: To introduce and comment on the substantial advance and its importance in the fast-developing areas; (2) Frontier: To review the most representative achievements and comment on the current research status in the important fields, and propose directions for the future research; (3) Topic Highlight: This column consists of three formats, including (A) 10 invited review articles on a hot topic, (B) a commentary on common issues of this hot topic, and (C) a commentary on the 10 individual articles; (4) Observation: To update the development of old and new questions, highlight unsolved problems, and provide strategies on how to solve the questions; (5) Guidelines for Basic Research: To provide Guidelines for basic research; (6) Guidelines for Clinical Practice: To provide guidelines for clinical diagnosis and treatment; (7) Review: To systemically review the most representative progress and unsolved problems in the major scientific disciplines, comment on the current research status, and make suggestions on the future work; (8) Original Article: To originally report the innovative and valuable findings in gastrointestinal surgery; (9) Brief Article: To briefly report the novel and innovative findings in gastrointestinal endoscopy; (10) Case Report: To report a rare or typical case; (11) Letters to the Editor: To discuss and make reply to the contributions published in WJGS, or to introduce and comment on a controversial issue of general interest; (12) Book Reviews: To introduce and comment on quality monographs of gastrointestinal surgery; (13) Guidelines: To introduce Consensuses and Guidelines reached by international and national academic authorities worldwide on basic research and clinical practice in gastrointestinal surgery.


ISSN 1948-9366 (online)

Published by

Beijing Baishideng BioMed Scientific Co., Ltd.


Manuscripts should be typed in 1.5 line spacing and 12 pt. Book Antiqua with ample margins. Number all pages consecutively, and start each of the following sections on a new page: Title Page, Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, References, Tables, Figures, and Figure Legends. Neither the editors nor the publisher are responsible for the opinions expressed by contributors. Manuscripts formally accepted for publication become the permanent property of Beijing Baishideng BioMed Scientific Co., Ltd, and may not be reproduced by any means, in whole or in part, without the written permission of both the authors and the publisher. We reserve the right to copy-edit and put onto our website accepted manuscripts. Authors should follow the relevant guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals of their institution or national animal welfare committee. For the sake of transparency in regard to the performance and reporting of clinical trials, we endorse the policy of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors to refuse to publish papers on clinical trial results if the trial was not recorded in a publicly-accessible registry at its outset. The only register now available, to our knowledge, is http://www. sponsored by the United States National Library of Medicine and we encourage all potential contributors to register with it. However, in the case that other registers become available you will be duly notified. A letter of recommendation from each author’s organization should be provided with the contributed article to ensure the privacy and secrecy of research is protected.

Authors should retain one copy of the text, tables, photographs and illustrations because rejected manuscripts will not be returned to the author(s) and the editors will not be responsible for loss or damage to photographs and illustrations sustained during mailing.

Online submissions

Manuscripts should be submitted through the Online Submission System at: Authors are highly recommended to consult the ONLINE INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS ( before attempting to submit online. For assistance, authors encountering problems with the Online Submission System may send an email describing the problem to, or by telephone: +86-10-85381891. If you submit your manuscript online, do not make a postal contribution. Repeated online submission for the same manuscript is strictly prohibited.


All contributions should be written in English. All articles must be submitted using word-processing software. All submissions must be typed in 1.5 line spacing and 12 pt. Book Antiqua with ample margins. Style should conform to our house format. Required information for each of the manuscript sections is as follows:

Title page

Title: Title should be less than 12 words.

Running title: A short running title of less than 6 words should be provided.

Authorship: Authorship credit should be in accordance with the standard proposed by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, based on (1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and (3) final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3.

Institution: Author names should be given first, then the complete name of institution, city, province and postcode. For example, Xu-Chen Zhang, Li-Xin Mei, Department of Pathology, Chengde Medical College, Chengde 067000, Hebei Province, China. One author may be represented from two institutions, for example, George Sgourakis, Department of General, Visceral, and Transplantation Surgery, Essen 45122, Germany; George Sgourakis, 2nd Surgical Department, Korgialenio-Benakio Red Cross Hospital, Athens 15451, Greece

Author contributions: The format of this section should be: Author contributions: Wang CL and Liang L contributed equally to this work; Wang CL, Liang L, Fu JF, Zou CC, Hong F and Wu XM designed the research; Wang CL, Zou CC, Hong F and Wu XM performed the research; Xue JZ and Lu JR contributed new reagents/analytic tools; Wang CL, Liang L and Fu JF analyzed the data; and Wang CL, Liang L and Fu JF wrote the paper.

Supportive foundations: The complete name and number of supportive foundations should be provided, e.g., Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 30224801

Correspondence to: Only one corresponding address should be provided. Author names should be given first, then author title, affiliation, the complete name of institution, city, postcode, province, country, and email. All the letters in the email should be in lower case. A space interval should be inserted between country name and email address. For example, Montgomery Bissell, MD, Professor of Medicine, Chief, Liver Center, Gastroenterology Division, University of California, Box 0538, San Francisco, CA 94143, United States.

Telephone and fax: Telephone and fax should consist of +, country number, district number and telephone or fax number, e.g., Telephone: +86-10-59080039, Fax: +86-10-85381893

Peer reviewers: All articles received are subject to peer review. Normally, three experts are invited for each article. Decision for acceptance is made only when at least two experts recommend an article for publication. Reviewers for accepted manuscripts are acknowledged in each manuscript, and reviewers of articles which were not accepted will be acknowledged at the end of each issue. To ensure the quality of the articles published in WJGS, reviewers of accepted manuscripts will be announced by publishing the name, title/position and institution of the reviewer in the footnote accompanying the printed article. For example, reviewers: Professor Jing-Yuan Fang, Shanghai Institute of Digestive Disease, Shanghai, Affiliated Renji Hospital, Medical Faculty, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China; Professor Xin-Wei Han, Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China; and Professor Anren Kuang, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Huaxi Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China.


There are unstructured abstracts (no more than 256 words) and structured abstracts (no more than 480). The specific requirements for structured abstracts are as follows:

An informative, structured abstracts of no more than 480 words should accompany each manuscript. Abstracts for original contributions should be structured into the following sections. AIM (no more than 20 words): Only the purpose should be included. Please write the aim as the form of “To investigate/study/…; MATERIALS AND METHODS (no more than 140 words); RESULTS (no more than 294 words): You should present P values where appropriate and must provide relevant data to illustrate how they were obtained, e.g. 6.92 ± 3.86 vs 3.61 ± 1.67, P < 0.001; CONCLUSION (no more than 26 words). Available from:

Key words

Please list 5-10 key words, selected mainly from Index Medicus, which reflect the content of the study.


For articles of these sections, original articles, rapid communication and case reports, the main text should be structured into the following sections: INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS, RESULTS and DISCUSSION, and should include appropriate Figures and Tables. Data should be presented in the main text or in Figures and Tables, but not in both. The main text format of these sections, editorial, topic highlight, case report, letters to the editors, can be found at:


Figures should be numbered as 1, 2, 3, etc., and mentioned clearly in the main text. Provide a brief title for each figure on a separate page. Detailed legends should not be provided under the figures. This part should be added into the text where the figures are applicable. Figures should be either Photoshop or Illustrator files (in tiff, eps, jpeg formats) at high-resolution. Examples can be found at:;;;; Keeping all elements compiled is necessary in line-art image. Scale bars should be used rather than magnification factors, with the length of the bar defined in the legend rather than on the bar itself. File names should identify the figure and panel. Avoid layering type directly over shaded or textured areas. Please use uniform legends for the same subjects. For example: Figure 1 Pathological changes in atrophic gastritis after treatment. A: ...; B: ...; C: ...; D: ...; E: ...; F: ...; G: …etc. It is our principle to publish high resolution-figures for the printed and E-versions.


Three-line tables should be numbered 1, 2, 3, etc., and mentioned clearly in the main text. Provide a brief title for each table. Detailed legends should not be included under tables, but rather added into the text where applicable. The information should complement, but not duplicate the text. Use one horizontal line under the title, a second under column heads, and a third below the Table, above any footnotes. Vertical and italic lines should be omitted.

Notes in tables and illustrations

Data that are not statistically significant should not be noted. aP < 0.05, bP < 0.01 should be noted (P > 0.05 should not be noted). If there are other series of P values, cP < 0.05 and dP < 0.01 are used. A third series of P values can be expressed as eP < 0.05 and fP < 0.01. Other notes in tables or under illustrations should be expressed as 1F, 2F, 3F; or sometimes as other symbols with a superscript (Arabic numerals) in the upper left corner. In a multi-curve illustration, each curve should be labeled with ●, ○, ■, □, ▲, [big up triangle, open], etc., in a certain sequence.


Brief acknowledgments of persons who have made genuine contributions to the manuscript and who endorse the data and conclusions should be included. Authors are responsible for obtaining written permission to use any copyrighted text and/or illustrations.


Coding system

The author should number the references in Arabic numerals according to the citation order in the text. Put reference numbers in square brackets in superscript at the end of citation content or after the cited author’s name. For citation content which is part of the narration, the coding number and square brackets should be typeset normally. For example, “Crohn’s disease (CD) is associated with increased intestinal permeability[1,2]”. If references are cited directly in the text, they should be put together within the text, for example, “From references[19,22-24], we know that...”

When the authors write the references, please ensure that the order in text is the same as in the references section, and also ensure the spelling accuracy of the first author’s name. Do not list the same citation twice.


Pleased provide PubMed citation numbers to the reference list, e.g. PMID and DOI, which can be found at and, respectively. The numbers will be used in E-version of this journal.

Style for journal references

Authors: the name of the first author should be typed in bold-faced letters. The family name of all authors should be typed with the initial letter capitalized, followed by their abbreviated first and middle initials. (For example, Lian-Sheng Ma is abbreviated as Ma LS, Bo-Rong Pan as Pan BR). The title of the cited article and italicized journal title (journal title should be in its abbreviated form as shown in PubMed), publication date, volume number (in black), start page, and end page [PMID: 11819634 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.13.5396].

Style for book references

Authors: the name of the first author should be typed in bold-faced letters. The surname of all authors should be typed with the initial letter capitalized, followed by their abbreviated middle and first initials. (For example, Lian-Sheng Ma is abbreviated as Ma LS, Bo-Rong Pan as Pan BR) Book title. Publication number. Publication place: Publication press, Year: start page and end page.



English journal article (list all authors and include the PMID where applicable)

1 Jung EM, Clevert DA, Schreyer AG, Schmitt S, Rennert J, Kubale R, Feuerbach S, Jung F. Evaluation of quantitative contrast harmonic imaging to assess malignancy of liver tumors: A prospective controlled two-center study. World J Gastroenterol 2007; 13: 6356-6364 [PMID: 18081224 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.13.6356]

Chinese journal article (list all authors and include the PMID where applicable)

2 Lin GZ, Wang XZ, Wang P, Lin J, Yang FD. Immunologic effect of Jianpi Yishen decoction in treatment of Pixu-diarrhoea. Shijie Huaren Xiaohua Zazhi 1999; 7: 285-287

In press

3 Tian D, Araki H, Stahl E, Bergelson J, Kreitman M. Signature of balancing selection in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006; In press

Organization as author

4 Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension 2002; 40: 679-686 [PMID: 12411462 PMCID:2516377 DOI:10.1161/01.HYP.0000035706.28494.09]

Both personal authors and an organization as author

5 Vallancien G, Emberton M, Harving N, van Moorselaar RJ; Alf-One Study Group. Sexual dysfunction in 1, 274 European men suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms. J Urol 2003; 169: 2257-2261 [PMID: 12771764 DOI:10.1097/01.ju.0000067940.76090.73]

No author given

6 21st century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ 2002; 325: 184 [PMID: 12142303 DOI:10.1136/bmj.325.7357.184]

Volume with supplement

7 Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache 2002; 42 Suppl 2: S93-99 [PMID: 12028325 DOI:10.1046/j.1526-4610.42.s2.7.x]

Issue with no volume

8 Banit DM, Kaufer H, Hartford JM. Intraoperative frozen section analysis in revision total joint arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2002; (401): 230-238 [PMID: 12151900 DOI:10.1097/00003086-200208000-00026]

No volume or issue

9 Outreach: Bringing HIV-positive individuals into care. HRSA Careaction 2002; 1-6 [PMID: 12154804]


Personal author(s)

10 Sherlock S, Dooley J. Diseases of the liver and billiary system. 9th ed. Oxford: Blackwell Sci Pub, 1993: 258-296

Chapter in a book (list all authors)

11 Lam SK. Academic investigator’s perspectives of medical treatment for peptic ulcer. In: Swabb EA, Azabo S. Ulcer disease: investigation and basis for therapy. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1991: 431-450

Author(s) and editor(s)

12 Breedlove GK, Schorfheide AM. Adolescent pregnancy. 2nd ed. Wieczorek RR, editor. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Education Services, 2001: 20-34

Conference proceedings

13 Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ cell tumours Conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer, 2002: 30-56

Conference paper

14 Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza’s computational effort statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Genetic programming. EuroGP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming; 2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer, 2002: 182-191

Electronic journal (list all authors)

15 Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerg Infect Dis serial online, 1995-01-03, cited 1996-06-05; 1(1): 24 screens. Available from: URL: http//

Patent (list all authors)

16 Pagedas AC, inventor; Ancel Surgical R&D Inc., assignee. Flexible endoscopic grasping and cutting device and positioning tool assembly. United States patent US 20020103498. 2002 Aug 1

Statistical data

Write as mean ± SD or mean ± SE.

Statistical expression

Express t test as t (in italics), F test as F (in italics), chi square test as χ2 (in Greek), related coefficient as r (in italics), degree of freedom as υ (in Greek), sample number as n (in italics), and probability as P (in italics).


Use SI units. For example: body mass, m (B) = 78 kg; blood pressure, p (B) = 16.2/12.3 kPa; incubation time, t (incubation) = 96 h, blood glucose concentration, c (glucose) 6.4 ± 2.1 mmol/L; blood CEA mass concentration, p (CEA) = 8.6 24.5 μg/L; CO2 volume fraction, 50 mL/L CO2, not 5% CO2; likewise for 40 g/L formaldehyde, not 10% formalin; and mass fraction, 8 ng/g, etc. Arabic numerals such as 23, 243, 641 should be read 23 243 641.

The format for how to accurately write common units and quantums can be found at:


Standard abbreviations should be defined in the abstract and on first mention in the text. In general, terms should not be abbreviated unless they are used repeatedly and the abbreviation is helpful to the reader. Permissible abbreviations are listed in Units, Symbols and Abbreviations: A Guide for Biological and Medical Editors and Authors (Ed. Baron DN, 1988) published by The Royal Society of Medicine, London. Certain commonly used abbreviations, such as DNA, RNA, HIV, LD50, PCR, HBV, ECG, WBC, RBC, CT, ESR, CSF, IgG, ELISA, PBS, ATP, EDTA, mAb, can be used directly without further explanation.


Quantities: t time or temperature, c concentration, A area, l length, m mass, V volume.

Genotypes: gyrA, arg 1, c myc, c fos, etc.

Restriction enzymes: EcoRI, HindI, BamHI, Kbo I, Kpn I, etc.

Biology: H. pylori, E coli, etc.


Please revise your article according to the revision policies of WJGS. The revised version including manuscript and high-resolution image figures (if any) should be copied on a floppy or compact disk. The author should send the revised manuscript, along with printed high-resolution color or black and white photos, copyright transfer letter, and responses to the reviewers by courier (such as EMS/DHL).

Editorial Office

World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery

Editorial Department: Room 903, Building D,

Ocean International Center,

No. 62 Dongsihuan Zhonglu,

Chaoyang District, Beijing 100025, China


Telephone: +86-10-85381891

Fax: +86-10-85381893

Language evaluation

The language of a manuscript will be graded before it is sent for revision. (1) Grade A: priority publishing; (2) Grade B: minor language polishing; (3) Grade C: a great deal of language polishing needed; (4) Grade D: rejected. Revised articles should reach Grade A or B.

Copyright assignment form

Please download a Copyright assignment form from

Responses to reviewers

Please revise your article according to the comments/suggestions provided by the reviewers. The format for responses to the reviewers’ comments can be found at:

Proof of financial support

For paper supported by a foundation, authors should provide a copy of the document and serial number of the foundation.

Links to documents related to the manuscript

WJGS will be initiating a platform to promote dynamic interactions between the editors, peer reviewers, readers and authors. After a manuscript is published online, links to the PDF version of the submitted manuscript, the peer-reviewers’ report and the revised manuscript will be put on-line. Readers can make comments on the peer reviewer’s report, authors’ responses to peer reviewers, and the revised manuscript. We hope that authors will benefit from this feedback and be able to revise the manuscript accordingly in a timely manner.

Science news releases

Authors of accepted manuscripts are suggested to write a science news item to promote their articles. The news will be released rapidly at EurekAlert/AAAS ( The title for news items should be less than 90 characters; the summary should be less than 75 words; and main body less than 500 words. Science news items should be lawful, ethical, and strictly based on your original content with an attractive title and interesting pictures.

Publication fee

Authors of accepted articles must pay a publication fee.


Articles from World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery are provided here courtesy of Baishideng Publishing Group Inc