Cystic fibrosis–related diabetes (CFRD) is the most common comorbidity in people with cystic fibrosis (CF), occurring in ~20% of adolescents and 40–50% of adults (1). While it shares features of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, CFRD is a distinct clinical entity. It is primarily caused by insulin insufficiency, although fluctuating levels of insulin resistance related to acute and chronic illness also play a role. The additional diagnosis of CFRD has a negative impact on pulmonary function and survival in CF, and this risk disproportionately affects women (2–4). In contrast to patients with other types of diabetes, there are no documented cases of death from atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with CFRD, despite the fact that some now live into their sixth and seventh decades.
These guidelines are the result of a joint effort between the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF), the American Diabetes Association (ADA), and the Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES). They are intended for use by CF patients, their care partners, and health care professionals and include recommendations for screening, diagnosis, and medical management of CFRD. This report focuses on aspects of care unique to CFRD. A comprehensive summary of recommendations for all people with diabetes can be found in the ADA Standards of Medical Care, published annually in the January supplement to Diabetes Care (5).