a: The Illumina noise factors. Here the identical DNA templates are depicted as the colored boxes and the black ovals denote DNA polymerases. With no noise, the current signal (red lightning) is strong enough to infer the DNA sequences directly. b: When the phasing noise is introduced, it causes lagging (green lightning) or leading (blue lightning). c: The loss of material can cause reducing the signal intensity (fading noise). d: The fluorophore crosstalk can cause misinterpretation of the current signal.