1. Goldman L, Genel M, Bezman RJ, Slanetz PJ. Diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. JAMA. 1998;279:1100–1107. [PubMed] 2. Faraone SV, Sergeant J, Gillberg C, Biederman J. The Worldwide Prevalence of ADHD: Is it an American Condition? World Psychiatry. 2003;2:104–113. [PubMed] 3. Barkley RA, Fischer M, Edelbrock CS, Smallish L. The adolescent outcome of hyperactive children diagnosed by research criteria: I. An 8-year prospective followup study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1990;29:546–557. [PubMed] 4. Weiss G, Hechtman L, Milroy T, Perlman T. Psychiatric status of hyperactives as adults: A controlled prospective 15 year follow up of 63 hyperactive children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1985;24:211–220. [PubMed]
5. Weiss G. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. W.B. Saunders Company; Philadelphia PA: 1992. Attention-Deficit Disorder.
6. Mannuzza S, Klein RG, Bessler A, Malloy P, LaPadula M. Adult outcome of hyperactive boys: Educational achievement, occupational rank, and psychiatric status. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993;50:565–576. [PubMed] 7. Mannuzza S, Klein RG, Bessler A, Malloy P, Hynes M. Educational and occupational outcome of hyperactive boys grown up. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36:1222–1227. [PubMed] 8. Hechtman L, Weiss G. Controlled prospective fifteen year follow-up of hyperactives as adults: Non-medical drug and alcohol use and anti-social behaviour. Can J Psychiatry. 1986;31:557–567. [PubMed] 9. Achenbach TM, Howell CT, McConaughy SH, Stanger C. Six-year predictors of problems in a national sample of children and youth: I. Cross-informant syndromes. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1995;34:336–347. [PubMed] 10. Hart EL, Lahey BB, Loeber R, Applegate B, Frick PJ. Developmental change in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in boys: A four-year longitudinal study. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1995;23:729–749. [PubMed]
11. Loney J, Kramer J, Milich RS. The hyperactive child grows up: Predictors of symptoms, delinquency and achievement at followup. In: Gadow K, Loney J, editors. Psychosocial Aspects of Drug Treatment for Hyperactivity. Boulder, CO: Westview Press; 1981. pp. 381–415.
12. Biederman J, Faraone S, Milberger S, Guite J, Mick E, Chen L, et al. A prospective 4-year follow-up study of attention-deficit hyperactivity and related disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1996;53:437–446. [PubMed] 13. Biederman J, Faraone SV, Spencer T, Wilens TE, Norman D, Lapey KA, et al. Patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, cognition, and psychosocial functioning in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150:1792–1798. [PubMed] 14. Shekim WO, Asarnow RF, Hess E, Zaucha K, Wheeler N. A clinical and demographic profile of a sample of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, residual state. Compr Psychiatry. 1990;31:416–425. [PubMed] 15. Biederman J. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A life-span perspective. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59:4–16. [PubMed]
16. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.
17. Denckla MB. Executive function, the overlap zone between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities. Int Pediatr. 1989;4:155–160.
18. Barkley RA. Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychol Bull. 1997;121:65–94. [PubMed] 19. Chelune GJ, Ferguson W, Koon R, Dickey TO. Frontal lobe disinhibition in attention deficit disorder. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 1986;16:221–34. [PubMed] 20. Clark C, Prior M, Kinsella G. The relationship between executive function abilities, adaptive behaviour, and academic achievement in children with externalising behaviour problems. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2002;43:785–796. [PubMed]
21. Sergeant J. A theory of attention: an information processing perspective. In: Lyon G, Krasnegor K, editors. Attention, Memory, and Executive Function. Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brooks; 1996. pp. 57–71.
22. Sergeant J, Geurts H, Oosterlaan J. How specific is a deficit of executive functioning for Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? Behav Brain Res. 2002;130:3–28. [PubMed]
23. Douglas VI. Stop, look and listen: The problem of sustained attention and impulse control in hyperactive and normal children. Can J Behavioral Sci. 1972;4:259–282.
24. Deuel RK. Minimal brain dysfunction, hyperkinesis, learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder. J Pediatr. 1981;98:912–915. [PubMed] 25. Mattes J. The role of frontal lobe dysfunction in childhood hyperkinesis. Compr Psychiatry. 1980;21:358–369. [PubMed]
26. Lahey BB, Carlson CL. Validity of a diagnostic category of attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity. Committee on Disruptive Behavior Disorders of the Task Force for DSM-IV. 1989
27. Lahey BB. Analysis of DSM-IV Field Trials. 1992.
28. Biederman J, Faraone S, Mick E. Age dependent decline of ADHD symptoms revisited: Impact of remission definition and symptom subtype. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:816–817. [PubMed]
29. Seidman J, Biederman J, Faraone S, Monuteaux M, Weber W. Neuropsychological findings in ADHD children: Findings from a sample of ADHD children (Abstract). 44th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry; Toronto. October 14–19, 1997.
30. Fischer M, Barkley RA, Edelbrock CS, Smallish L. The adolescent outcome of hyperactive children diagnosed by research criteria: II. Academic, attentional, and neuropsychological status. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1990;58:580–8. [PubMed]
31. Millstein RB, Wilens TE, Biederman J, Spencer TJ. Presenting ADHD symptoms and subtypes in clinically referred adults with ADHD. J Atten Disord. 1997;2:159–166.
32. Murphy P. Cognitive functioning in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. J Atten Disord. 2002;5:203–209. [PubMed]
33. Faraone SV, Biederman J, Monuteaux M, Seidman L. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disability: A prospective four year follow-up study. J Atten Disord. 2001;3:23–25.
34. Seidman LJ, Biederman J, Faraone SV, Weber W, Ouellette C. Toward defining a neuropsychology of ADHD: Performance of children and adolescents from a large clinically referred sample. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1997;65:150–160. [PubMed] 35. Schachar R, Tannock R, Marriott M, Logan G. Deficient inhibitory control in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1995;23:411–37. [PubMed] 36. Pennington BF, Ozonoff S. Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1996;37:51–87. [PubMed]
37. Jenkins M, Cohen R, Malloy Pl, Salloway S, Johnson EG, Penn J, et al. Neuropsychological measures which discriminate among adults with residual symptoms of attention deficit disorder and other attentional complaints. Clin Neuropsychologist. 1998;12:74–83.
38. Welsh MC, Pennington BF. Assessing frontal lobe functioning in children: Views from developmental psychology. Dev Neuropsychol. 1988;4:199–230.
39. Barkley RA. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 1990.
40. Bush G, Frazier JA, Rauch SL, Seidman LJ, Whalen PJ, Jenike MA, et al. Anterior cingulate cortex dysfunction in attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder revealed by fMRI and the Counting Stroop. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;45:1542–52. [PubMed] 41. Walker AJ, Shores EA, Trollor JN, Lee T, Sachdev PS. Neuropsychological functioning of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2000;22:115–24. [PubMed] 42. Carter CS, Krener P, Chaderjian M, Northcutt C, Wolfe V. Abnormal processing of irrelevant information in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry Res. 1995;56:59–70. [PubMed] 43. Seidman LJ, Biederman J, Weber W, Hatch M, Faraone S. Neuropsychological function in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 1998;44:260–268. [PubMed] 44. Seidman LJ, Benedict KB, Biederman J, Bernstein JH, Seiverd K, Milberger S, et al. Performance of children with ADHD on the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure: A pilot neuropsychological study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1995;36:1459–1473. [PubMed]
45. Seidman L. Neuropsychological testing. In: Tasman A, Kay J, Lieberman J, editors. Psychiatry. W. B. Saunders Company; 1997. pp. 498–508.
46. Brown TE, Quinlan DM. Executive function impairments in high IQ adults with ADHD. Yale University School of Medicine; New Haven, CT: 1999.
47. Matochik J, Rumsey J, Zametkin A, Hamburger S, Cohen R. Neuropsychological correlates of familial attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol. 1996;9:186–191.
48. Barkley RA, Grodzinsky GM. Are tests of frontal lobe functions useful in the diagnosis of attention deficit disorders? Clin Neuropsychologist. 1994;8:121–139.
49. Doyle A, Biederman J, Seidman L, Weber W, Faraone S. Diagnostic efficiency of neuropsychological test scores for discriminating boys with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000;68:477–488. [PubMed] 50. Goldstein JM, Seidman LJ, Goodman JM, Koren D, Lee H, Weintraub S, et al. Are there sex differences in neuropsychological functions among patients with schizophrenia? Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155:1358–1364. [PubMed]
51. Grodzinsky G, Diamond R. Frontal lobe functioning in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Dev Neuropsychol. 1992;8:427–445.
52. Seidman LJ, Biederman J, Faraone SV, Milberger S, Norman D, Seiverd K, et al. Effects of family history and comorbidity on the neuropsychological performance of children with ADHD: Preliminary findings. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1995;34:1015–1024. [PubMed] 53. Biederman J, Petty C, Fried R, Fontanella J, Doyle AE, Seidman L, et al. Impact of Psychometrically-Defined Executive Function Deficits in Adults with ADHD. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:1730–8. [PubMed] 54. Wilens T, Faraone SV, Biederman J. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults. JAMA. 2004;292:619–23. [PubMed]
55. Wilens TE, Spencer T. The stimulants revisited. In: Stubbe C, editor. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. Philadelphia: PA Saunders; 2000. pp. 573–603.
56. Wilens T, Spencer T, Biederman J. A review of the pharmacotherapy of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Atten Disord. 2002;5:189–202. [PubMed]
57. Greenhill L, Osman B. Ritalin: Theory and Practice. New York, NY: Mary Ann Liebert; 1999.
58. Barkley RA. A review of stimulant drug research with hyperactive children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1977;18:137–165. [PubMed]
59. Swanson J, McBurnett K, Christian D, Wigal T. Stimulant medications and the treatment of children with ADHD. In: Ollendick T, Prinz R, editors. Adv Clin Child Psychol. New York, NY: Plenum Press; 1995. pp. 265–322.
60. Zametkin A, Ernst M. Problems in the management of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:40–46. [PubMed] 61. Greenhill LL, Pliszka S, Dulcan MK, Bernet W, Arnold V, Beitchman J, et al. Practice parameter for the use of stimulant medications in the treatment of children, adolescents, and adults. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2002;41:26S–49S. [PubMed] 62. Simpson D, Plosker GL. Spotlight on atomoxetine in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. CNS Drugs. 2004;18:397–401. [PubMed] 63. Hah M, Chang K. Atomoxetine for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents with bipolar disorders. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2005;15:996–1004. [PubMed]
64. Pelham WE. The effects of psychostimulant drugs on learning and academic achievement in children with attention-deficit disorders and learning disabilities. In: Torgesen JK, Wong B, editors. Psychological and Educational Perspectives on Learning Disabilities. New York, NY: Academic Press; 1986. pp. 259–295.
65. Pelham WE, Sturges J, Hoza J, Schmidt C, Bijlsma JJ, Milich R, et al. Sustained release and standard methylphenidate effects on cognitive and social behavior in children with attention deficit disorder. Pediatrics. 1987;80:491–501. [PubMed]
66. Gittelman-Klein R. Pharmacotherapy of childhood hyperactivity: An update. In: Meltzer H, editor. Psychopharmacology: The Third Generation of Progress. New York, NY: Raven Press; 1987. pp. 1215–1224.
67. Fischer M. Persistence of ADHD into adulthood: It depends on whom you ask. The ADHD Report. 1997;5:8–10.
68. Spencer T. A controlled, long-term trial of methylphenidate in the treatment of adults with ADHD: preliminary data. Annual meetings of the American Psychiatric Association; Philadelphia, PA. May 2002.
69. Tannock R, Schachar RJ, Carr RP, Chajczyk D, Logan GD. Effects of methylphenidate on inhibitory control in hyperactive children. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1989;17:473–491. [PubMed] 70. Tannock R, Schachar RJ, Carr RP, Logan GD. Dose-response effects of methylphenidate on academic performance and overt behavior in hyperactive children. Pediatrics. 1989;84:648–657. [PubMed] 71. Tannock R, Ickowicz A, Schachar R. Differential effects of methylphenidate on working memory in ADHD children with and without comorbid anxiety. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1995;34:886–896. [PubMed] 72. Schachar R, Tannock R, Cunningham C, Corkum P. Behavioral, situational, and temporal effects of treatment of ADHD with methylphenidate. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36:754–763. [PubMed]
73. Brown R, Sawyer M. Short-term cognitive and behavioral effects of psychotropic medications. In: Brown R, Sawyer M, editors. Medications for School-Aged Kids. New York, NY: Guilford; 1998. pp. 29–61.
74. Rapport MD, Jones JT, DuPaul GJ, Kelly KL, Gardner MJ, Tucker SB, et al. Attention deficit disorder and methylphenidate: Group and single-subject analyses of dose effects on attention in clinic and classroom settings. J Clin Child Psychol. 1987;16:329–338.
75. Rapport MD, DuPaul GJ. Hyperactivity and methylphenidate: Rate-dependent effects on attention. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1986;1:45–52. [PubMed] 76. Douglas VI, Barr RG, Desilets J, Sherman E. Do high doses of stimulants impair flexible thinking in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1995;34:877–885. [PubMed] 77. Keith RW, Engineer P. Effects of methylphenidate on the auditory processing abilities of children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. J Learn Disabil. 1991;24:630–6. [PubMed] 78. Balthazor MJ, Wagner RK, Pelham WE. The specificity of the effects of stimulant medication on classroom learning-related measures of cognitive processing for attention deficit disorder children. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1991;19:35–52. [PubMed] 79. Kempton S, Vance A, Maruff P, Luk E, Costin J, Pantelis C. Executive function and ADHD: stimulant medication and better executive function performance in children. Psychol Med. 1999;29:527–538. [PubMed] 80. Riordan HJ, Flashman LA, Saykin AJ, Fruitger SA, Carroll KE, Huey L. Neuropsychological correlates of methylphenidate treatment in adult ADHD with and without depression. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 1999;14:217–233. [PubMed] 81. Faraone SV, Biederman J, Spencer T, Michelson D, Adler L, Reimherr F, et al. Atomoxetine and stroop task performance in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2005;15:664–670. [PubMed] 82. Werry J, Aman M. Methylphenidate and haloperidol in children. Effects on memory and activity. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1975;32:790–795. [PubMed]
83. Werry JS. The use of behavior modifying drugs in children. New York, NY: Brunner/Mazel; 1978. Pediatric psychopharmacology.
84. Wilens TE, Biederman J, Spencer TJ, Frazier J, Prince J, Bostic J, et al. Controlled trial of high doses of pemoline for adults with attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1999;19:257–64. [PubMed] 85. Castellanos FX, Giedd JN, Eckburg P, Marsh WL, Vaituzis AC, Kaysen D, et al. Quantitative morphology of the caudate nucleus in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1994;151:1791–1796. [PubMed] 86. Hynd GW, Hern KL, Novey ES, Eliopulis D, Marshall R, Gonzalez JJ, et al. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and asymmetry of the caudate nucleus. J Child Neurol. 1993;8:339–347. [PubMed] 87. Giedd JN, Castellanos FX, Casey BJ, Kozuch P, King AC, Hamburger SD, et al. Quantitative morphology of the corpus callosum in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1994;151:665–669. [PubMed] 88. Zametkin A, Liotta W. The neurobiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59:17–23. [PubMed] 89. Zametkin AJ, Nordahl TE, Gross M, King AC, Semple WE, Rumsey J, et al. Cerebral glucose metabolism in adults with hyperactivity of childhood onset. N Eng J Med. 1990;323:1361–1366. [PubMed] 90. Hynd GW, Semrud-Clikeman M, Lorys AR, Novey ES, Eliopulos D. Brain morphology in developmental dyslexia and attention deficit disorder/hyperactivity. Arch Neurol. 1990;47:919–926. [PubMed] 91. Faraone S, Doyle A, Mick E, Biederman J. Meta-analysis of the association between the 7-repeat allele of the dopamine D4 receptor gene and ADHD. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158:1052–1057. [PubMed]
92. Faraone SV, Biederman J. The neurobiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In: Charney DS, Nestler EJ, Bunney BS, editors. Neurobiology of Mental Illness. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc; 1999. pp. 788–801.
93. Dykman RA, Ackerman PT, Ogelsby DM. Selective and sustained attention in hyperactive, learning-disabled, and normal boys. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1979;167:288–297. [PubMed] 94. Gorenstein EE, Mammato CA, Sandy JM. Performance of inattentive-overactive children on selected measures of prefrontal-type function. J Clin Psychol. 1989;45:619–32. [PubMed]
95. Voeller K. The neurological basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Int Pediatr. 1990;5:171–176.
96. Castellanos FX, Giedd JN, Berquin PC, Walter JM, Sharp W, Tran T, et al. Quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging in girls with attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58:289–95. [PubMed] 97. Potter AS, Newhouse PA, Bucci DJ. Central nicotinic cholinergic systems: A role in the cognitive dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Behav Brain Res. 2006;175:201–211. [PubMed] 98. Milberger S, Biederman J, Faraone S, Chen L, Jones J. ADHD is associated with early initiation of cigarette smoking in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36:37–44. [PubMed] 99. Pomerleau O, Downey K, Stelson F, Pomerleau C. Cigarette smoking in adult patients diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Subst Abuse. 1995;7:373–378. [PubMed] 100. Kollins SH, McClernon FJ, Fuemmeler BF. Association between smoking and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a population-based sample of young adults. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62:1142–1147. [PubMed] 101. Milberger S, Biederman J, Faraone SV, Chen L, Jones J. Is maternal smoking during pregnancy a risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children? Am J Psychiatry. 1996;153:1138–1142. [PubMed] 102. Fung YK, Lau YS. Effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on rat striatal dopaminergic and nicotinic systems. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1989;33:1–6. [PubMed] 103. Johns JM, Louis TM, Becker RF, Means LW. Behavioral effects of prenatal exposure to nicotine in guinea pigs. Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol. 1982;4:365–369. [PubMed] 104. Levin ED, McClernon FJ, Rezvani AH. Nicotinic effects on cognitive function: behavioral characterization, pharmacological specification, and anatomic localization. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2006;184:523–39. [PubMed] 105. Parrott AC, Winder G. Nicotine chewing gum (2 mg, 4 mg) and cigarette smoking: comparative effects upon vigilance and heart rate. Psychopharmacology. 1989;97:257–261. [PubMed] 106. Wesnes K, Warburton D. The effects of cigarettes of varying yield on rapid information processing performance. Psychopharmacology. 1984;82:338–342. [PubMed] 107. Bekker EM, Bocker KBE, Van Hunsel F, van den Berg MC, Kenemans JL. Acute effects of nicotine on attention and response inhibition. Pharmacol Biochem Behavior. 2005;82:539–548. [PubMed] 108. Poltavski DV, Petros T. Effects of transdermal nicotine on attention in adult non-smokers with and without attentional deficits. Physiol Behav. 2006;87:614–624. [PubMed] 109. Jones G, Sahakian B, Levy R, Warburton D, Gray J. Effects of acute subcutaneous nicotine on attention, information and short-term memory in Alzheimer’s disease. Psychopharmacology. 1992;108:485–494. [PubMed] 110. Wesnes K, Warburton DM. Smoking, nicotine, and human performance. Pharmacol Ther. 1983;21:189–208. [PubMed] 111. Meck W, Church R. Cholinergic modulation of the content of temporal memory. Behav Neuroci. 1987;101:457–464. [PubMed] 112. Peeke S, Peeke H. Attention, memory, and cigarette smoking. Psychopharmacology. 1984;84:205–216. [PubMed] 113. Conners CK, Levin ED, Sparrow E, Hinton SC, Erhardt D, Meck WH, et al. Nicotine and attention in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Psychopharmacol Bull. 1996;32:67–73. [PubMed] 114. Potter AS, Newhouse PA. Effects of acute nicotine administration on behavioral inhibition in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2004;176:182–94. [PubMed] 115. Newhouse P, Sunderland T, Tariot P, Blumhardt C, Weingartner H, Mellow A, et al. Intravenous nicotine in Alzheimer’s disease: a pilot study. Psychopharmacology. 1988;95:171–175. [PubMed] 116. Harris JG, Kongs S, Allensworth D, Martin L, Tregellas J, Sullivan B, et al. Effects of nicotine on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004;29:1378–85. [PubMed] 117. Smith RC, Singh A, Infante M, Khandat A, Kloos A. Effects of Cigarette Smoking and Nicotine Nasal Spray on Psychiatric Symptoms and Cognition In Schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002;27:479–497. [PubMed] 118. Levin E, Conners C, Sparrow E, Hinton S, Erhardt D, Meck W, et al. Nicotine effects on adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychopharmacology. 1996;123:55–63. [PubMed] 119. Gehricke J-G, Whalen CK, Jamner LD, Wigal TL, Steinhoff K. The reinforcing effects of nicotine and stimulant medication in the everyday lives of adult smokers with ADHD: A preliminary examination. Nicotine Tobacco Res. 2006;8:37–47. [PubMed]
120. Decker MW, Arneric SP. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-targeted compounds: A summary of the development pipeline and therapeutic potential. In: Arneric SP, Brioni JD, editors. Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors: Pharmacology and Therapeutic Opportunities. New York, NY: Wiley-Liss; 1999. pp. 395–411.
121. Decker MW, Brioni JD, Bannon AW, Arneric SP. Diversity of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: lessons from behavior and implications for CNS therapeutics. Life Sci. 1995;56:545–70. [PubMed] 122. Decker MW, Sullivan JP, Arneric SP, Williams M. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: Novel targets for CNS therapeutics. Psychopharmacology: Fourth Generation of Progress. 2000. Chapter Update Published online on the ACNP Scientific Website at: http://www.acnp.org/citations/GN401000009/ 123. Changeux JP, Bertrand D, Corringer PJ, Dehaene S, Edelstein S, Lena C, et al. Brain nicotinic receptors: structure and regulation, role in learning and reinforcement. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1998;26:198–216. [PubMed] 124. Sargent PB. The diversity of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Ann Rev Neurosci. 1993;16:403–43. [PubMed] 125. Wang N, Orr-Urtreger A, Korczyn AD. The role of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in autonomic ganglia: lessons from knockout mice. Prog Neurobiol. 2002;68:341–360. [PubMed] 126. Gotti C, Clementi F. Neuronal nicotinic receptors: from structure to pathology. Prog Neurobiol. 2004;74:363–396. [PubMed] 127. Gotti C, Zoli M, Clementi F. Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: Native subtypes and their relevance. Trend Pharmacol Sci. 2006;27:482–491. [PubMed] 128. Decker MW, McGaugh JL. The role of interactions between the cholinergic system and other neuromodulatory systems in learning and memory. Synapse. 1991;7:151–68. [PubMed] 129. Wonnacott S. Presynaptic nicotinic ACh receptors. Trends Neurosci. 1997;20:92–8. [PubMed] 130. Cummings JL. Cholinesterase inhibitors: A new class of psychotropic compounds. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:4–15. [PubMed] 131. Sarter M, Hasselmo ME, Bruno JP, Givens B. Unraveling the attentional functions of cortical cholinergic inputs: interactions between signal-driven and cognitive modulation of signal detection. Brain Res Rev. 2005;48:98–111. [PubMed] 132. McGaughy J, Dalley JW, Morrison CH, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW. Selective Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects of Cholinergic Lesions Produced by Intrabasalis Infusions of 192 IgG-Saporin on Attentional Performance in a Five-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task. J Neurosci. 2002;22:1905–1913. [PubMed] 133. Westfall T, Grant H, Perry H. Release of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine from rat striatal slices following activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors. Gen Pharmacol. 1983;14:321–325. [PubMed] 134. Mereu G, Yoon K, Gessa G, Naes L, Westfall T. Preferential stimulation of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons by nicotine. Eur J Pharmacol. 1987;141:395–399. [PubMed] 135. Krause KH, Dresel SH, Krause J, Kung HF, Tatsch K, Ackenheil M. Stimulant-like action of nicotine on striatal dopamine transporter in the brain of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2002;5:111–113. [PubMed] 136. Adams JP, Sweatt JD. Molecular psychology: Roles for the ERK MAP kinases cascade in memory. Ann Rev Pharmcol Toxicol. 2002;42:135–163. [PubMed] 137. Svenningsson P, Nishi A, Fisone G, Girault JA, Nairn AC, Greengard P. DARPP-32: an integrator of neurotransmission. Ann Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2004;44:269–96. [PubMed] 138. Pichat P, Bergis OE, Terranova JP, Urani A, Duarte C, Santucci V, et al. SSR180711, a novel selective alpha 7 nicotinic receptor partial agonist: (II) efficacy in experimental models predictive of activity against cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007;32:17–34. [PubMed] 139. Wishka DG, Walker DP, Yates KM, Reitz SC, Jia S, Myers JK, et al. Discovery of N-((3R)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl)furo(2,3-c)pyridine-5- carboxamide, an agonist of the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, for the potential treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: Synthesis and structure-activity relationship. J Med Chem. 2006;49:4425–4436. [PubMed] 140. Tatsumi R, Fujio M, Takanashi S, Numata A, Katayama J, Satoh H, et al. (R)-3 ′-(3-methylbenzo(b)thiophen-5-yl)spiro(1-azabicyclo(2,2,2) octane-3,5 ′-oxazolidin)-2 ′-one, a novel and potent alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist displays cognitive enhancing properties. J Med Chem. 2006;49:4374–4383. [PubMed] 141. Mazurov A, Hauser T, Miller CH. Selective alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands. Curr Med Chem. 2006;13:1567–1584. [PubMed] 142. van Kampen M, Selbach K, Schneider R, Schiegel E, Boess F, Schreiber R. AR-R 17779 improves social recognition in rats by activation of nicotinic alpha(7) receptors. Psychopharmacology. 2004;172:375–383. [PubMed] 143. Curzon P, Anderson DJ, Nikkel AL, Fox GB, Gopalakrishnan M, Decker MW, et al. Antisense knockdown of the rat [alpha]7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor produces spatial memory impairment. Neurosci Lett. 2006;410:15–19. [PubMed] 144. Hahn B, Sharples CGV, Wonnacott S, Shoaib M, Stolerman IP. Attentional effects of nicotinic agonists in rats. Neuropharmacology. 2003;44:1054–1067. [PubMed] 145. Curzon P, Brioni JD, Decker MW. Effect of intraventricular injections of dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DHBE) on spatial memory in the rat. Brain Res. 1996;714:185–91. [PubMed] 146. Wehner JM, Keller JJ, Keller AB, Picciotto MR, Paylor R, Booker TK, et al. Role of neuronal nicotinic receptors in the effects of nicotine and ethanol on contextual fear conditioning. Neuroscience. 2004;129:11–24. [PubMed] 147. Cordero-Erausquin M, Marubio LM, Klink R, Changeux JP. Nicotinic receptor function: new perspectives from knockout mice. Trend Pharmacol Sci. 2000;21:211–217. [PubMed] 148. Granon S, Faure P, Changeux JP. Executive and social behaviors under nicotinic receptor regulation. PNAS. 2003;100:9596–9601. [PubMed] 149. Hahn B, Shoaib M, Stolerman IP. Involvement of the prefrontal cortex but not the dorsal hippocampus in the attention-enhancing effects of nicotine in rats. Psychopharmacology. 2003;168:271–279. [PubMed] 150. Blondel A, Sanger DJ, Moser PC. Characterisation of the effects of nicotine in the five-choice serial reaction time task in rats: antagonist studies. Psychopharmacology. 2000;149:293–305. [PubMed] 151. Todd RD, Lobos EA, Sun LW, Neuman RJ. Mutational analysis of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 subunit gene in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: evidence for association of an intronic polymorphism with attention problems. Mol Psychiatry. 2003;8:103–8. [PubMed] 152. Gatto GJ, Bohme GA, Caldwell WS, Letchworth SR, Traina VM, Obinu MC, et al. TC-1734: an orally active neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulator with antidepressant, neuroprotective and long-lasting cognitive effects. CNS Drug Rev. 2004;10:47–66. [PubMed] 153. Rueter LE, Anderson DJ, Briggs CA, Donnelly-Roberts DL, Gintant GA, Gopalakrishnan M, et al. ABT-089: Pharmacological properties of a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist for the potential treatment of cognitive disorders. CNS Drug Rev. 2004;10:167–82. [PubMed] 154. Arneric SP, Sullivan JP, Decker MW, Brioni JD, Bannon AW, Briggs CA, et al. Potential treatment of Alzheimer disease using cholinergic channel activators (ChCAs) with cognitive enhancement, anxiolytic-like, and cytoprotective properties. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 1995;9 (Suppl 2):50–61. [PubMed] 155. Decker MW, Bannon AW, Curzon P, Gunther KL, Brioni JD, Holladay MW, et al. ABT-089 [2-methyl-3-(2-(S)-pyrrolidinylmethoxy)pyridine dihydrochloride]: II. A novel cholinergic channel modulator with effects on cognitive performance in rats and monkeys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997;283:247–58. [PubMed] 156. Potter A, Corwin J, Lang J, Piasecki M, Lenox R, Newhouse PA. Acute effects of the selective cholinergic channel activator (nicotinic agonist) ABT-418 in Alzheimer’s disease. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1999;142:334–42. [PubMed] 157. Wilens TE, Biederman J, Spencer TJ, Bostic J, Prince J, Monuteaux MC, et al. A pilot controlled clinical trial of ABT-418, a cholinergic agonist, in the treatment of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156:1931–7. [PubMed] 158. Wilens T, Verlinden MH, Adler LA, Wozniak PA, West SA. ABT-089, A Neuronal Nicotinic Receptor Partial Agonist, for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults: Results of a Pilot Study. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;59:1065–70. [PubMed] 159. Dunbar GC, Inglis F, Kuchibhatla R, Sharma T, Tomlinson M, Wamsley J. Effect of ispronicline, a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, in subjects with age associated memory impairment (AAMI) J Psychopharmacol. 2007;21:171–178. [PubMed]
160. Arneric SP, Anderson DJ, Bannon AW, Briggs CA, Buccafusco JJ, Brioni JD, et al. Preclinical pharmacology of ABT-418: A prototypical cholinergic channel activator for the potential treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Drug Rev. 1995;1:1–26.
161. Sullivan JP, Donnelly-Roberts D, Briggs CA, Anderson DJ, Gopalakrishnan M, Xue IC, et al. ABT-089 [2-methyl-3-(2-(S)-pyrrolidinylmethoxy)pyridine]: I. A potent and selective cholinergic channel modulator with neuroprotective properties. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997;283:235–46. [PubMed]
162. Man K, Parikh V, Decker MW, Sarter M. Neuroscience Meeting Planner. Atlanta, GA: Society for Neuroscience; 2006. Differential cholinergic “footprints” evoked by nicotine- and the a4β2*-selective partial agonist ABT-089 in prefrontal cortex. Program No. 163.7.
163. Brioni JD, Kim DJB, Brodie MS, Decker MW, Arneric SP. ABT-418: Discriminative stimulus properties and effect on ventral tegmental cell activity. Psychopharmacology. 1995;119:368–375. [PubMed]
164. Decker MW, Bannon AW, Curzon P. Septal lesions as model for evaluating potential cognition enhancers. In: Numan R, editor. The Behavioral Neuroscience of the Septal Region. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 2000. pp. 363–379.
165. Prendergast MA, Jackson WJ, Terry AV, Jr, Decker MW, Arneric SP, Buccafusco JJ. Central nicotinic receptor agonists ABT-418, ABT-089, and (-)-nicotine reduce distractibility in adult monkeys. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1998;136:50–8. [PubMed] 166. Prendergast MA, Jackson WJ, Terry AV, Jr, Kille NJ, Arneric SP, Decker MW, et al. Age-related differences in distractibility and response to methylphenidate in monkeys. Cereb Cortex. 1998;8:164–172. [PubMed]
167. Arneric SP, Campbell JE, Carroll S, Daanen JF, Holladay MW, Johnson P, et al. ABT-089 (3-(2(S)-pyrrolidinylmethoxy)-2-methyl-pyridine): An orally effective cholinergic channel modulator with potential once-a-day dosing and cardiovascular safety. Drug Dev Res. 1997;41:31–43.