Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptHHS Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). Author manuscript; available in PMC 2010 November 1.
Published in final edited form as:
PMCID: PMC2966973

New Imaging Approaches to Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas


Formerly used concepts for pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas have been challenged by recent discoveries that a) at least 24% of tumors are familial and thereby often multiple in various locations throughout the body, b) tumors are often malignant and perhaps more aggressive if associated with SDHB gene mutations, c) clinically silent tumors may present only with dopamine hypersecretion, d) tumors are more often found as incidentalomas in the current era where CT and MRI are more commonly used and e) MRI may be less specific for pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma than previously thought. Because of unique tumor characteristics (e.g. the presence of cell membrane and intracellular vesicular norepinephrine transporters) these tumors were ‘born’ to be imaged by means of specific functional imaging approaches. Moreover, additional recent discoveries related to apoptosis, hypoxia, acidosis, anaerobic glycolysis, and angiogenesis, often disturbed in tumor cells, open new options and challenges to specifically image pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas and possibly link those results to their pathophysiology, genotypic alterations and metastatic potential. Functional imaging, especially represented by PET, offers an excellent approach by which tumor specific processes can be detected, evaluated and seen in the context of tumor-specific behavior and its genetic signature. In this review, we address the recent developments in new functional imaging modalities for pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma and provide the reader with a new modified imaging algorithm for various pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas of sympathetic origin. Current imaging algorithms of head and neck parasympathetic paragangliomas are not discussed. Finally, this review outlines some future perspectives of functional imaging of these tumors.


International nomenclature and guidelines concerning pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, tumors that are derived from chromaffin tissues, have changed drastically over the last few years 1. Officially, the term pheochromocytoma must be reserved for those paragangliomas located inside the adrenal glands, whereas sympathetic paragangliomas outside the adrenals are referred to as extra-adrenal paragangliomas. Most of these sympathetic paragangliomas are able to produce, metabolize and secrete catecholamines. Paragangliomas located in the head and neck region are often derived from parasympathetic tissue and rarely secrete catecholamines. Although the differentiation between intra- and extra-adrenal localization seems arbitrary, it reflects the distinctive biochemical and clinical properties of these tumors. Adrenal tumors are usually benign, secrete both epinephrine and norepinephrine in at least 50% of cases, are often related to a specific gene mutation if located bilaterally, and are frequently found as incidentalomas. In contrast, extra-adrenal tumors have a noradrenergic and/or dopaminergic phenotype and more often have an aggressive or metastatic nature. However, reports of clinically silent tumors that do not secrete catecholamines at all or merely dopamine are emerging as well 2. Recent studies have shown that at least 24% of paragangliomas are familial and thereby often multiple in various locations throughout the body 3,4. Because there is no definite histological substrate for malignant pheochromocytoma, malignant disease can only be established by either demonstrating local tumor invasion and/or the presence of paraganglioma cells outside the normal sites. Interestingly, pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma that are metastatic are most often related to mutations in the SDHB gene, further emphasizing the need to consider genotype-phenotype associations 5. Although sensitivity of MRI imaging in paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma is high, studies have stressed its disappointing specificity and found the ‘classical’ image of pheochromocytoma to be present in only a minority of patients 6. Therefore, functional imaging is a tremendous asset in imaging strategies in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

Since pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma have specific cellular and intracellular characteristics, they may well be described as being born to be imaged specifically and uniquely. These characteristics favor the use of functional imaging modalities, including situations when proof that a tumor is an adrenal pheochromocytoma is needed, which is the case in: 1) norepinephrine secreting tumors (these tumors may also be located extra-adrenally), 2) search for metastatic disease (especially in those tumors over 5 cm in size), 3) familial pheochromocytoma, especially due to their multiplicity or perhaps higher metastatic potential if associated with a SDHB mutation. Current functional imaging of endocrine tumors has revealed that these modalities, except for their well-known specific detection and localization of a tumor, have potential to assess 1) tumor behavior, 2) response to therapy (e.g. the presence of specific transporters or receptors, apoptosis), 3) genetic background (e.g. detection of oxidative stress), and 4) the potential to metastasize (e.g. evaluation of angiogenesis). Recent introduction of combined PET/CT scans further increased precise detection and localization of tumors, often with reduced cost for additional and multiple imaging modalities.

Established functional imaging of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma

Similar to the sympathetic nervous system, pheochromocytomas and most extra-adrenal paragangliomas express cell membrane norepinephrine transporters (NET) through which catecholamines can enter cells to be stored in vesicles (Figure 1). For many years metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) has been used for diagnostic imaging in pheochromocytoma because of its resemblance to norepinephrine and its good affinity and uptake by the NET 7. [131I]-MIBG scintigraphy has a sensitivity of 77-90% and a specificity of 95-100% 8,9,10. In 1986, Shulkin et al. illustrated the superiority of scintigraphy with [123I]-MIBG over [131I]-MIBG in a paraganglioma patient 11. Later studies have shown that the use of the [123I]-isotope resulted in a better performance with a sensitivity of 83-100% and a specificity of 95-100% 12,13,14,15,10,16. In addition, the [123I]-isotope can be visualized with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, further increasing its diagnostic accuracy. Importantly, the normal adrenal medullary may show physiological uptake of both [131I]- and [123I]-MIBG 17,18. Suboptimal sensitivity of MIBG scintigraphy might be associated with the relatively low affinity of MIBG to the NET, the lack of storage granules or the loss of transporters by tumor cell dedifferentiation 19. Furthermore, medication use interfering with MIBG uptake in patients could result in false-negative results 20.

Figure 1
Non-specific and specific imaging for pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma

Somatostatin receptors have also been discovered on paragangliomas and have been used in imaging of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Although [111In]-pentetreotide (Octreoscan) can be used in pheochromocytoma diagnosis, it has in general been considered inferior to the use of MIBG in patients with benign intra-adrenal pheochromocytomas 21,22,23,24,25,26. In 2001, van der Harst et al. reviewed their experience of preoperative [123I]-MIBG scintigraphy and imaging with a labeled somatostatin analog in the diagnostic work-up in pheochromocytoma patients and concluded that somatostatin receptor imaging might be considered as a supplement for MIBG scintigraphy in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma patients with suspected metastatic disease 27.

Emerging endocrine functional imaging of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma

Newer somatostatin analogues like DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide (DOTATOC) have shown favorable characteristics in imaging with high affinity for somatostatin receptors and a stable and easy process of labeling 28. Although most existing somatostatin-based tracers only have affinity for the somatostatin receptor subtype 2, which is not always present on pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma cells, newer compounds, such as DOTANOC, also have affinity for other somatostatin receptor subtypes 29,30.

The introduction of positron emission tomography (PET) has had a tremendous impact on functional imaging. [11C]-hydroxyephedrine ([11C]-HED) is more polar than MIBG, has even greater similarities with norepinephrine and was the first positron-emitting probe of the sympathoadrenal system used in humans 31,32. [11C]-HED synthesis is complex and it has a very short half-life of only 20 min, thus requires onsite production for each separate patient. Newer positron-emitting compounds used in PET imaging, like [18F] (half-life 110 min), generate positrons that result in high resolution images. The advantage of [18F] is that the incorporation into a molecule has only small effects on the ability of the carrying compound to bind to receptors, or be taken up by their transporters 33. Their relatively short half-lives in comparison with MIBG increase the maximal dose that can be administered safely and make imaging possible shortly after injection, instead of the mandatory postponed imaging 24 and 48 hours after MIBG injection. Furthermore, recent revolutionary developments enabled combining conventional imaging methods like CT with PET, further improving its diagnostic use 34. The positron-emitting compound [18F] may be used in combination with several carrier compounds relevant in pheochromocytoma / paraganglioma. The compound dopamine is a much better substrate for the NET than norepinephrine itself 19. Clinical studies have confirmed that [18F]-fluorodopamine ([18F]-FDA) can be used as an imaging agent for pheochromocytoma 35,36,37,38. In addition to expressing NET, pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors and are able to take up and decarboxylate amino acids like dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). DOPA can be labeled with [18F] to form the imaging compound [18F]-dihydroxyphenylalanine ([18F]-FDOPA). DOPA can be decarboxylated to dopamine by L-amino acid decarboxylase (L-AADC), which is shown in Figure 1. At least part of this compound’s ability to localize paragangliomas is the fact that [18F]-FDOPA is converted to [18F]-FDA which is subsequently stored in the intracellular vesicles (Figure 1). Carbidopa has been reported to enhance the sensitivity of [18F]-FDOPA PET for paragangliomas by further increasing the tumor-to-background ratio of tracer uptake 39. The most frequently used PET imaging agent is [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]-FDG). Imaging with [18F]-FDG PET reflects excessive glucose uptake mainly via GLUT-1 in metabolically hyperactive tumors (increased anaerobic glycolysis) 40. Although [18F]-FDG PET is less specific, studies have shown it can be a useful in patients with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, especially in malignant disease, as will be discussed below 41,42. At present, newer somatostatin derivatives like DOTATOC and DOTANOC labeled with the PET radiotracer [68Ga] have shown promising results in imaging of somatostatin receptor positive tumors as compared to the non-PET [111In]-pentetreotide scintigraphy, exemplifying the superior performance of PET imaging over scintigraphy in general 29,43,44.

The need for an individualized approach in the functional imaging of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas

Data published about pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma support the notion that the following contemplations must be taken into account in imaging approaches to these tumors in each patient; I. the suspicion for adrenal or extra-adrenal disease, II. the risk of recurrent metastatic or multifocal disease, and III. the suspicion for familial tumors, especially the presence of succinate dehydrogenase (SDHx) gene mutations. Previous and recent articles characterizing very well described phenotypes of these tumors must guide the use of proper imaging modalities in close context with their clinical and biochemical phenotypes 45,46,47. The biochemical phenotype may also point towards preferred initial genetic testing that further supports the choice of initial imaging approach and algorithm. Below we will discuss the evidence of implementing a tailor-made functional imaging approach in these different subsets of patients with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma according to location (I), metastatic disease (II) and the presence of SDHx gene mutations (III).

I. Adrenal vs. extra-adrenal disease

I-a. Functional imaging approach to adrenal paragangliomas (pheochromocytomas)

About 80% of the sympathetic paragangliomas arise from the adrenal medulla and are thus ‘true’ pheochromocytomas 4. Therefore, some reports have questioned the need for routine use of functional imaging in the diagnostic workup for pheochromocytoma, suggesting that the treatment plan in patients with an adrenal lesion suspicious for pheochromocytoma, in the absence of hereditary disease or a history of pheochromocytoma, will not change 48,49. It was concluded that in non-familial cases with a clear biochemical diagnosis and a unilateral adrenal mass on CT or MRI, no additional functional imaging is necessary 50,49. Although this recommendation may be valid in certain cases, the following issues need to be addressed. Determination of the biochemical phenotype must be taken into account in the decision making. As is shown in Figure 2, epinephrine is the end product after norepinephrine is changed by phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, an enzyme that is expressed in the adrenal glands but not in extra-adrenal lesions (except extremely rare cases). Therefore, hypersecretion of only epinephrine and its respective metanephrine metabolite (the adrenergic phenotype) reflects the presence of an adrenal mass, whereas patients that have a noradrenergic biochemical phenotype may have either an adrenal and/or extra-adrenal lesion, or both.

Figure 2
Pathways of metabolism of catecholamines to free and sulfate-conjugated metanephrines

Furthermore, research has shown that apparently sporadic tumors were found to be hereditary in at least 24% of cases, which could lead to an underestimated risk for multifocal and malignant disease and devaluate the use of an absence of a family history as a criterion for not performing functional imaging 3,51. Paragangliomas in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) are usually located in the adrenal and always produce epinephrine and/or metanephrine, alone or together with norepinephrine and/or normetanephrine. Interestingly, patients with MEN2 are not only at risk for developing bilateral adrenal disease but may also have multiple tumors in one adrenal gland. On the other hand, lack of phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase activity results in a solely noradrenergic phenotype in VHL-associated adrenal tumors. Familial paragangliomas, those related to SDHx gene mutations, have been associated with tumors in adrenal but more often extra-adrenal locations and may present with multifocal or metastasized disease.

Even though MRI and CT have excellent sensitivity (90-100%) 35, the ability of CT and MRI alone to specify a pheochromocytoma from other abdominal lesions is insufficient 13. Recently, Jacques et al. demonstrated the wide range of possible appearances of pheochromocytoma on MRI images, emphasizing their low specificity and questioning the relevance of finding the ‘classical’ hyperintense pheochromocytoma image on a T2 weighted MRI 6. Thus, the current concept of any area-limited imaging may be insufficient in these patients in whom multifocal, extra-adrenal and even metastatic disease cannot be easily ruled out.

Several reports have shown [123I]-MIBG scintigraphy to have a decent performance in intra-adrenal pheochromocytomas with sensitivities ranging from 85-100%. However, a recent study by Bhatia et al. in this journal eloquently displayed the likelihood of false-negative MIBG scintigraphies in patients with smaller tumors 52. Importantly, because screening in asymptomatic stages of disease in patients with a hereditary risk is increasingly advocated, we expect these smaller tumors to be encountered more frequently in the future 52. Physiologic uptake of [123I]-MIBG and [18F]-FDA in normal adrenal glands may lead to false-positive results. The use of standardized uptake values for distinguishing adrenal glands with pheochromocytoma from those without, has been advocated in [18F]-FDA PET 53. Pheochromocytoma is unlikely with SUV below 7.3, whereas an SUV above 10.1 confirms the presence of pheochromocytoma. Imaging with [18F]-FDOPA PET outperformed [123I]-MIBG scintigraphy in the detection of pheochromocytoma 54. In addition, to its advantage, it was noted that normal adrenal glands lack uptake of [18F]-FDOPA 55,56, whereas both the [123I]-MIBG and [18F]-FDA compounds revealed some degree of accumulation in normal adrenal glands.

Newer studies will have to address specifically the performance of functional imaging modalities in relation to the underlying gene mutation. Although data concerning functional imaging in patients with specifically a MEN2 associated pheochromocytoma is scarce, [123I]-MIBG scintigraphy, [18F]-FDA PET and [18F]-DOPA PET are thought to perform well, with the advantages of the newer PET imaging characteristics as described above. In contrast, in patients with VHL-associated pheochromocytoma, [18F]-FDA PET significantly outperformed [123I]-MIBG scintigraphy, which could be related to the limited expression of NET in VHL paraganglioma cells. The fact that [18F]-FDA has a much higher affinity for these receptors than MIBG is thought to be responsible 57,38.

In conclusion, patients with an adrenal lesion suspect for pheochromocytoma, need imaging with either [123I]-MIBG scintigraphy, [18F]-FDA PET or [18F]-DOPA PET to detect or exclude multifocal or metastatic disease. However, in the case of a noradrenergic or dopaminergic phenotype, additional paragangliomas located outside the adrenals need to be excluded. Albeit more expensive, we believe imaging quality and favorable dosimetry favor the use of the newer PET imaging compounds, where available. Furthermore, since a hereditary basis is found to be much more frequent than previously estimated, genetic results must certainly be taken into account. Adrenal tumors associated with a VHL gene mutation, are best imaged by [18F]-FDA PET, whereas studies specifically concerning adrenal paragangliomas associated with other genotypes (i.e. MEN) are awaited.

I-b. Functional imaging approach to extra-adrenal paragangliomas

Almost all extra-adrenal paragangliomas lack the phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (Figure 2) and, therefore, produce norepinephrine and its metabolite normetanephrine without elevated levels of epinephrine and its derivative. Extra-adrenal locations of paragangliomas are frequently found in familial paraganglioma syndromes associated with the SDHx mutations 45,46,47. By contrast, extra-adrenal and malignant disease are rare in MEN2 patients. Malignant disease is most prevalent in SDHB carriers (up to 70%), whereas metastases are thought to be very rare in SDHD mutation carriers (~2.5%) 58,59. Since patients have a high risk for multifocal and/or metastatic disease and a negative family history is not uncommon, the need to perform whole body functional imaging must be emphasized in these patients.

Extra-adrenal paragangliomas have been frequently reported to lack adequate uptake of [123/131I]-MIBG 27,52. In our experience, extra-adrenal lesions may be easily missed on CT or MRI if the suspicion of their presence is not specifically indicated in the information. Overall, [18F]-FDA PET has a better performance in detecting extra-adrenal paragangliomas than [123I]-MIBG scintigraphy and should therefore be the preferred imaging modality, if available. In a study of 17 patients with non-metastatic adrenal and extra-adrenal paraganglioma, [18F]-DOPA PET detected tumors with a strikingly high sensitivity and specificity of 100% for both 54. Interestingly, our study of patients with predominantly metastatic paraganglioma revealed a sensitivity for [18F]-DOPA PET of only 50% 39. However, these results may have reflected an overrepresentation of patients with SDHB mutations and their associated high prevalence of malignant disease, which will be further discussed below.

In conclusion, patients may present with extra-adrenal paragangliomas and clinicians need to realize that the accuracy of imaging with MIBG in these extra-adrenal tumors is often disappointing. Functional PET imaging with [18F]-FDOPA or [18F]-FDA has been reported to be a better approach. Interestingly, in patients with a documented SDHB mutation, the [18F]-FDOPA PET performed very poor (especially in those with metastasized SDHB associated paragangliomas) and should therefore not be advised.

II. Functional imaging approach to metastatic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas

In the absence of specific nuclear characteristics in malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, the histopathological diagnosis of malignancy is impossible and the diagnosis of metastatic disease is based on the findings of tumor tissue at locations where chromaffin cells are normally not present. Metastatic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are most commonly associated with mutations in the SDHB gene in an estimated 40% of cases if primary tumors are located in the abdomen 5. Adrenal paragangliomas (pheochromocytomas) associated with MEN and VHL are rarely metastatic. Although a heterogeneous appearance on MRI results in a higher degree of suspicion for malignancy, its predictive value is low 6. Metastatic paragangliomas imaged by [131/123I]-MIBG scintigraphy have often been found to be false negative or suboptimal 27,60,42. Therefore, currently, [131/123I]-MIBG scintigraphy in these patients is recommended to be performed only to evaluate whether the patient qualifies for [131I]-MIBG treatment, when other functional imaging modalities like e.g. [18F]-FDA PET are available. Labeled somatostatin analogs like [111In]-pentetreotide may be of additional value to [123I]-MIBG in the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected metastatic paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma 27. However, [111In]-pentetreotide scintigraphy lacks tissue specificity, only revealing the tumor’s somatostatin receptor status. Reports have indicated a higher sensitivity of somatostatin receptor based imaging in detecting MIBG negative metastatic disease and in dopamine-secreting tumors 26,61. Newer positron-emitting somatostatin analogues like [68Ga]-DOTATOC and DOTANOC reveal promising results 44. Importantly, both the expression of NET and somatostatin receptors may be lost in dedifferentiated tumors, resulting in false negative imaging in metastatic disease 27,24,52.

Superiority of [18F]-FDA PET over [131/123I]-MIBG scintigraphy was shown in malignant tumors 42,60. The sensitivity of [18F]-FDOPA PET for metastatic paragangliomas is reported to be limited, but [18F]-FDOPA PET may perform especially poor in patients with SDHB-related metastatic disease 39. Since malignant tumors are generally metabolically more active, [18F]-FDG PET imaging is a very useful approach, albeit less specific. In a large study concerning SDHB-associated malignant paragangliomas, [18F]-FDG PET was found to be the most sensitive imaging method by far 42. In another study focusing on paraganglioma bone metastases specifically, bone scintigraphy proved useful in the staging of patients with malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, particularly in patients with SDHB mutations. As for other functional imaging, [18F]-FDG PET was highly recommended in SDHB mutation positive patients, whereas [18F]-FDA PET was recommended in patients without the mutation 62. With increasing dedifferentiation of the tumor, the ideal functional imaging modality appears to shift from the more specific [18F]-FDA PET to the less specific [18F]-FDG PET, the so called “flip-flop” phenomenon 63. However, a larger study evaluating the role of [18F]-FDG PET in various pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma is missing.

In conclusion, imaging with [123I]-MIBG scintigraphy has a limited role in metastatic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, unless it is used to determine whether or not a patient is eligible for [131I]-MIBG treatment. We would prefer the use of [18F]-FDA PET imaging in patients with malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma without a known genetic mutation. The performance of [18F]-FDOPA PET may be limited in malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, but this might be related to only those with an SDHB mutation. Somatostatin analogues like [111In]-pentetreotide, [68Ga]-DOTATOC and [68Ga]-DOTANOC may be of use in imaging, although somatostatin receptors may be lost during the process of dedifferentiation. In metastatic tumors associated with a SDHB mutation, [18F]-FDG PET has shown its superiority 42. Nonetheless, because a large proportion of malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are associated with mutations in the SDHB gene per se, one might speculate that the excellent performance of [18F]-FDG PET in metastasized SDHB associated tumors, is a reflection of this genetic background itself.

III: Suspicion of the presence of SDH mutations and their putative role in the performance of functional imaging modalities in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas

Familial paraganglioma syndromes are associated with SDH gene mutations. SDH consists of four subunits (subunit A, B, C and D) of the mitochondrial complex II and is involved in two key mitochondrial pathways: the inner mitochondrial membrane bound electron transport chain and the mitochondrial matrix associated Krebs tri-carboxylic-acid (TCA) cycle. The interaction between both is necessary for maximal efficiency in ATP (energy) production under aerobic conditions. Mutations may lead to complete loss of SDH enzymatic activity in paragangliomas, with subsequent deregulation of hypoxia responsive genes 64. Impairment of mitochondrial function due to loss of SDH function may cause tumor cells to shift from oxidative phosphorylation to anaerobic glycolysis, also known as the “Warburg effect” 65. Therefore, we hypothesize that avid [18F]-FDG uptake by paragangliomas in SDHB positive patients does not merely reflect a high metabolic rate due to malignancy per se, but could be linked to SDHB-mutation specific tumor characteristics associated with upregulated glycolytic pathway. Although this has not been confirmed on a molecular level, other means of functional imaging may depend on the underlying mutations in a similar fashion. Future functional imaging approaches in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas could possibly provide clinicians with a link to their pathophysiology, genotypic alterations and metastatic potential. Functional imaging (especially PET) offers an excellent approach by which tumor specific processes can be detected, evaluated and seen in the context of tumor-specific behavior and its genetic signature. Future studies will have to generate more data specifically focused on [18F]-FDA, [18F]-FDOPA and [18F]-FDG PET imaging performances in separate patient cohorts with different underlying mutations. Head-to-head comparisons of imaging modality performance by mutation are awaited.

Conclusions, recommendations and future prospects

Paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas are tumors that are ideal for functional imaging because of their unique tumor characteristics. At least 24% of tumors have been found to be hereditary with consequent risk for multifocal or metastatic disease, and the specificity of MRI imaging has been reported to be much less than previously thought. We believe whole body functional imaging may be a rational approach in most cases, definitely in those with large, extra-adrenal and SDHB-related tumors. Functional imaging as a primary investigation in localizing the tumors is an interesting option and will further challenge current approaches to initially perform anatomical imaging only. Although cost and availability of the PET compounds still play a considerable role, the costs and non-specificity of whole body anatomical imaging must not be underestimated. From currently available PET radiopharmaceuticals, the use of [18F]-FDA or [18F]-FDOPA in patients with a biochemically established diagnosis of paraganglioma (often initially with unknown genotype) is warranted, especially when the aim is to localize the primary tumor and to rule out multifocality or metastases. Although [123I]-MIBG scintigraphy appears to perform equally in primary benign adrenal paragangliomas (pheochromocytomas), its sensitivity drops in extra-adrenal or malignant paragangliomas and it lacks the favorable dosimetry of the newer modalities.

Underlying gene mutations in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are much more prevalent than previously expected and should be considered when choosing the appropriate functional imaging modality. For example, in VHL carriers [18F]-FDA PET has been found to be superior compared to [123I]-MIBG scintigraphy. In patients with SDHB mutations [18F]-FDG or [18F]-FDA PET should be imaging modalities of choice, and [18F]-FDA or [18F]-DOPA PET are methods of choice in patients where SDHB has been ruled out. If PET imaging is not available, scintigraphy with [111In]-pentetreotide and/or the newer somatostatin analogues could be useful in addition to [123I]-MIBG, mainly in detection of metastatic disease. For the detection of bone metastases, [18F]-FDA PET is recommended in non-SDHB carriers, whereas in SDHB patients [18F]-FDG PET is the first choice. SDHB-related pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas have a very high risk for the development of malignant disease and appear to have a distinctive ‘imaging phenotype’ with a shift towards higher uptake of the less specific [18F]-FDG compound compared to the more specific PET compounds (flip-flop). Whether this is a reflection of dedifferentiation and metastatic disease, or is directly associated with mutations in the SDH genes, is subject to further studies.

Newer functional imaging approaches may detect and evaluate tumor responses to therapy well before the actual decrease in tumor size in the context of its genetic signature and, thus, monitor the activity of the tumor itself. Therapeutic trials in the future will have to be done in close collaboration with PET departments to create an individually focused treatment approach. We believe efficient use of the right functional imaging method with an individualized rational approach will lead to reduced costs and better diagnostics. Future studies will further focus on unraveling pseudohypoxia, apoptosis and angiogenesis as potential targets for functional imaging in these tumors.


This research was supported, in part, by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, NICHD.

Reference List

1. Pacak K, Eisenhofer G, Ahlman H, Bornstein SR, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Grossman AB, Kimura N, Mannelli M, McNicol AM, Tischler AS. Pheochromocytoma: recommendations for clinical practice from the First International Symposium. October 2005. Nat.Clin.Pract.Endocrinol.Metab. 2007;3:92–102. [PubMed]
2. Timmers HJ, Pacak K, Huynh TT, bu-Asab M, Tsokos M, Merino MJ, Baysal BE, Adams KT, Eisenhofer G. Biochemically silent abdominal paragangliomas in patients with mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B gene. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab. 2008;93:4826–4832. [PubMed]
3. Neumann HP, Bausch B, McWhinney SR, Bender BU, Gimm O, Franke G, Schipper J, Klisch J, Altehoefer C, Zerres K, Januszewicz A, Eng C, Smith WM, Munk R, Manz T, Glaesker S, Apel TW, Treier M, Reineke M, Walz MK, Hoang-Vu C, Brauckhoff M, Klein-Franke A, Klose P, Schmidt H, Maier-Woelfle M, Peczkowska M, Szmigielski C, Eng C. Germ-line mutations in nonsyndromic pheochromocytoma. N.Engl.J.Med. 2002;346:1459–1466. [PubMed]
4. Lenders JW, Eisenhofer G, Mannelli M, Pacak K. Phaeochromocytoma. Lancet. 2005;366:665–675. [PubMed]
5. Brouwers FM, Eisenhofer G, Tao JJ, Kant JA, Adams KT, Marston LW, Pacak K. High Frequency of SDHB Germline Mutations in Patients with Malignant Catecholamine-Producing Paragangliomas: Implications for Genetic Testing. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab. 2006 [PubMed]
6. Jacques AE, Sahdev A, Sandrasagara M, Goldstein R, Berney D, Rockall AG, Chew S, Reznek RH. Adrenal phaeochromocytoma: correlation of MRI appearances with histology and function. Eur.Radiol. 2008;18:2885–2892. [PubMed]
7. Sisson JC, Frager MS, Valk TW, Gross MD, Swanson DP, Wieland DM, Tobes MC, Beierwaltes WH, Thompson NW. Scintigraphic localization of pheochromocytoma. N.Engl.J.Med. 1981;305:12–17. [PubMed]
8. Bravo EL. Evolving concepts in the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of pheochromocytoma. Endocr.Rev. 1994;15:356–368. [PubMed]
9. Sisson JC, Shulkin BL. Nuclear medicine imaging of pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. Q.J.Nucl.Med. 1999;43:217–223. [PubMed]
10. Furuta N, Kiyota H, Yoshigoe F, Hasegawa N, Ohishi Y. Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma using [123I]-compared with [131I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. Int.J.Urol. 1999;6:119–124. [PubMed]
11. Shulkin BL, Shapiro B, Francis IR, Dorr R, Shen SW, Sisson JC. Primary extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma: positive I-123 MIBG imaging with negative I-131 MIBG imaging. Clin.Nucl.Med. 1986;11:851–854. [PubMed]
12. Shapiro B, Gross MD, Shulkin B. Radioisotope diagnosis and therapy of malignant pheochromocytoma. Trends Endocrinol.Metab. 2001;12:469–475. [PubMed]
13. Lumachi F, Tregnaghi A, Zucchetta P, Cristina MM, Cecchin D, Grassetto G, Bui F. Sensitivity and positive predictive value of CT, MRI and 123I-MIBG scintigraphy in localizing pheochromocytomas: a prospective study. Nucl.Med.Commun. 2006;27:583–587. [PubMed]
14. Cecchin D, Lumachi F, Marzola MC, Opocher G, Scaroni C, Zucchetta P, Mantero F, Bui F. A meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphic scoring system increases accuracy in the diagnostic management of pheochromocytoma. Endocr.Relat Cancer. 2006;13:525–533. [PubMed]
15. Nakatani T, Hayama T, Uchida J, Nakamura K, Takemoto Y, Sugimura K. Diagnostic localization of extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma: comparison of (123)I-MIBG imaging and (131)I-MIBG imaging. Oncol.Rep. 2002;9:1225–1227. [PubMed]
16. Nielsen JT, Nielsen BV, Rehling M. Location of adrenal medullary pheochromocytoma by I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine SPECT. Clin.Nucl.Med. 1996;21:695–699. [PubMed]
17. Lynn MD, Shapiro B, Sisson JC, Swanson DP, Mangner TJ, Wieland DM, Meyers LJ, Glowniak JV, Beierwaltes WH. Portrayal of pheochromocytoma and normal human adrenal medulla by m-[123I]iodobenzylguanidine: concise communication. J.Nucl.Med. 1984;25:436–440. [PubMed]
18. Elgazzar AH, Gelfand MJ, Washburn LC, Clark J, Nagaraj N, Cummings D, Hughes J, Maxon HR., III I-123 MIBG scintigraphy in adults. A report of clinical experience. Clin.Nucl.Med. 1995;20:147–152. [PubMed]
19. Eisenhofer G. The role of neuronal and extraneuronal plasma membrane transporters in the inactivation of peripheral catecholamines. Pharmacol.Ther. 2001;91:35–62. [PubMed]
20. Solanki KK, Bomanji J, Moyes J, Mather SJ, Trainer PJ, Britton KE. A pharmacological guide to medicines which interfere with the biodistribution of radiolabelled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) Nucl.Med.Commun. 1992;13:513–521. [PubMed]
21. Lamberts SW, Reubi JC, Krenning EP. Validation of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in the localization of neuroendocrine tumors. Acta Oncol. 1993;32:167–170. [PubMed]
22. Lastoria S, Maurea S, Vergara E, Acampa W, Varrella P, Klain M, Muto P, Bernardy JD, Salvatore M. Comparison of labeled MIBG and somatostatin analogs in imaging neuroendocrine tumors. Q.J.Nucl.Med. 1995;39:145–149. [PubMed]
23. Tenenbaum F, Lumbroso J, Schlumberger M, Mure A, Plouin PF, Caillou B, Parmentier C. Comparison of radiolabeled octreotide and meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy in malignant pheochromocytoma. J.Nucl.Med. 1995;36:1–6. [PubMed]
24. Kaltsas G, Korbonits M, Heintz E, Mukherjee JJ, Jenkins PJ, Chew SL, Reznek R, Monson JP, Besser GM, Foley R, Britton KE, Grossman AB. Comparison of somatostatin analog and meta-iodobenzylguanidine radionuclides in the diagnosis and localization of advanced neuroendocrine tumors. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab. 2001;86:895–902. [PubMed]
25. Giammarile F, Baudin E, Tenenbaum F, Lumbroso J, Schlumberger M, Rougier P, Ruffie P, Guigay J, Ducreux ML, Parmentier C. Somatostatin receptor imaging: a preliminary experience in forty-nine patients. Q.J.Nucl.Med. 1995;39:121–123. [PubMed]
26. Kwekkeboom DJ, van UH, Pauw BK, Lamberts SW, Kooij PP, Hoogma RP, Krenning EP. Octreotide scintigraphy for the detection of paragangliomas. J.Nucl.Med. 1993;34:873–878. [PubMed]
27. van der Harst HE, de Herder WW, Bruining HA, Bonjer HJ, de Krijger RR, Lamberts SW, van de Meiracker AH, Boomsma F, Stijnen T, Krenning EP, Bosman FT, Kwekkeboom DJ. [(123)I]metaiodobenzylguanidine and [(111)In]octreotide uptake in benign and malignant pheochromocytomas. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab. 2001;86:685–693. [PubMed]
28. Lin YC, Hung GU, Luo TY, Chen CH, Hsia CC, Hen SL, Ho YJ, Lin WY. A comparison of biodistribution between 111In-DTPA octreotide and 111In-DOTATOC in rats bearing pancreatic tumors. J.Vet.Med.Sci. 2006;68:367–371. [PubMed]
29. Wild D, Macke HR, Waser B, Reubi JC, Ginj M, Rasch H, Muller-Brand J, Hofmann M. 68Ga-DOTANOC: a first compound for PET imaging with high affinity for somatostatin receptor subtypes 2 and 5. Eur.J.Nucl.Med.Mol.Imaging. 2005;32:724. [PubMed]
30. Wild D, Schmitt JS, Ginj M, Macke HR, Bernard BF, Krenning E, De JM, Wenger S, Reubi JC. DOTA-NOC, a high-affinity ligand of somatostatin receptor subtypes 2, 3 and 5 for labelling with various radiometals. Eur.J.Nucl.Med.Mol.Imaging. 2003;30:1338–1347. [PubMed]
31. Schwaiger M, Kalff V, Rosenspire K, Haka MS, Molina E, Hutchins GD, Deeb M, Wolfe E, Jr, Wieland DM. Noninvasive evaluation of sympathetic nervous system in human heart by positron emission tomography. Circulation. 1990;82:457–464. [PubMed]
32. Shulkin BL, Wieland DM, Schwaiger M, Thompson NW, Francis IR, Haka MS, Rosenspire KC, Shapiro B, Sisson JC, Kuhl DE. PET scanning with hydroxyephedrine: an approach to the localization of pheochromocytoma. J.Nucl.Med. 1992;33:1125–1131. [PubMed]
33. Hovevey-Sion D, Eisenhofer G, Kopin IJ, Kirk KL, Chang PC, Szemeredi K, Goldstein DS. Metabolic fate of injected radiolabelled dopamine and 2-fluorodopamine in rats. Neuropharmacology. 1990;29:881–887. [PubMed]
34. Beyer T, Townsend DW, Blodgett TM. Dual-modality PET/CT tomography for clinical oncology. Q.J.Nucl.Med. 2002;46:24–34. [PubMed]
35. Pacak K, Linehan WM, Eisenhofer G, Walther MM, Goldstein DS. Recent advances in genetics, diagnosis, localization, and treatment of pheochromocytoma. Ann.Intern.Med. 2001;134:315–329. [PubMed]
36. Pacak K, Eisenhofer G, Carrasquillo JA, Chen CC, Li ST, Goldstein DS. 6-[18F]fluorodopamine positron emission tomographic (PET) scanning for diagnostic localization of pheochromocytoma. Hypertension. 2001;38:6–8. [PubMed]
37. Pacak K, Goldstein DS, Doppman JL, Shulkin BL, Udelsman R, Eisenhofer G. A “pheo” lurks: novel approaches for locating occult pheochromocytoma. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab. 2001;86:3641–3646. [PubMed]
38. Kaji P, Carrasquillo JA, Linehan WM, Chen CC, Eisenhofer G, Pinto PA, Lai EW, Pacak K. The role of 6-[18F]fluorodopamine positron emission tomography in the localization of adrenal pheochromocytoma associated with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Eur.J.Endocrinol. 2007;156:483–487. [PubMed]
39. Timmers HJ, Hadi M, Carrasquillo JA, Chen CC, Martiniova L, Whatley M, Ling A, Eisenhofer G, Adams KT, Pacak K. The Effects of Carbidopa on Uptake of 6-18F-Fluoro-L-DOPA in PET of Pheochromocytoma and Extraadrenal Abdominal Paraganglioma. J.Nucl.Med. 2007 [PubMed]
40. Kayani I, Groves AM. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in cancer imaging. Clin.Med. 2006;6:240–244. [PubMed]
41. Mann GN, Link JM, Pham P, Pickett CA, Byrd DR, Kinahan PE, Krohn KA, Mankoff DA. [11C]metahydroxyephedrine and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography improve clinical decision making in suspected pheochromocytoma. Ann.Surg.Oncol. 2006;13:187–197. [PubMed]
42. Timmers HJ, Kozupa A, Chen CC, Carrasquillo JA, Ling A, Eisenhofer G, Adams KT, Solis D, Lenders JW, Pacak K. Superiority of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to other functional imaging techniques in the evaluation of metastatic SDHB-associated pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. J.Clin.Oncol. 2007;25:2262–2269. [PubMed]
43. Buchmann I, Henze M, Engelbrecht S, Eisenhut M, Runz A, Schafer M, Schilling T, Haufe S, Herrmann T, Haberkorn U. Comparison of 68Ga-DOTATOC PET and 111In-DTPAOC (Octreoscan) SPECT in patients with neuroendocrine tumours. Eur.J.Nucl.Med.Mol.Imaging. 2007;34:1617–1626. [PubMed]
44. Goldsmith SJ. Update on nuclear medicine imaging of neuroendocrine tumors. Future.Oncol. 2009;5:75–84. [PubMed]
45. Neumann HP, Pawlu C, Peczkowska M, Bausch B, McWhinney SR, Muresan M, Buchta M, Franke G, Klisch J, Bley TA, Hoegerle S, Boedeker CC, Opocher G, Schipper J, Januszewicz A, Eng C. Distinct clinical features of paraganglioma syndromes associated with SDHB and SDHD gene mutations. JAMA. 2004;292:943–951. [PubMed]
46. Benn DE, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Reilly JR, Bertherat J, Burgess J, Byth K, Croxson M, Dahia PL, Elston M, Gimm O, Henley D, Herman P, Murday V, Niccoli-Sire P, Pasieka JL, Rohmer V, Tucker K, Jeunemaitre X, Marsh DJ, Plouin PF, Robinson BG. Clinical presentation and penetrance of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab. 2006;91:827–836. [PubMed]
47. Timmers HJ, Kozupa A, Eisenhofer G, Raygada M, Adams KT, Solis D, Lenders JW, Pacak K. Clinical Presentations, Biochemical Phenotypes, and Genotype-Phenotype Correlations in Patients with Succinate Dehydrogenase Subunit B-Associated Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab. 2007;92:779–786. [PubMed]
48. Greenblatt DY, Shenker Y, Chen H. The utility of metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy in patients with pheochromocytoma. Ann.Surg.Oncol. 2008;15:900–905. [PubMed]
49. Miskulin J, Shulkin BL, Doherty GM, Sisson JC, Burney RE, Gauger PG. Is preoperative iodine 123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy routinely necessary before initial adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma? Surgery. 2003;134:918–922. [PubMed]
50. Mihai R, Gleeson F, Roskell D, Parker A, Sadler G. Routine preoperative (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy for patients with phaeochromocytoma is not necessary. Langenbecks Arch.Surg. 2008;393:725–727. [PubMed]
51. Benn DE, Robinson BG. Genetic basis of phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Best.Pract.Res.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab. 2006;20:435–450. [PubMed]
52. Bhatia KS, Ismail MM, Sahdev A, Rockall AG, Hogarth K, Canizales A, Avril N, Monson JP, Grossman AB, Reznek RH. (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy for the detection of adrenal and extra-adrenal phaeochromocytomas: CT and MRI correlation. Clin.Endocrinol.(Oxf) 2008 [PubMed]
53. Timmers HJ, Carrasquillo JA, Whatley M, Eisenhofer G, Chen CC, Ling A, Linehan WM, Pinto PA, Adams KT, Pacak K. Usefulness of standardized uptake values for distinguishing adrenal glands with pheochromocytoma from normal adrenal glands by use of 6-18F-fluorodopamine PET. J.Nucl.Med. 2007;48:1940–1944. [PubMed]
54. Hoegerle S, Nitzsche E, Altehoefer C, Ghanem N, Manz T, Brink I, Reincke M, Moser E, Neumann HP. Pheochromocytomas: detection with 18F DOPA whole body PET--initial results. Radiology. 2002;222:507–512. [PubMed]
55. Hoegerle S, Altehoefer C, Ghanem N, Brink I, Moser E, Nitzsche E. 18F-DOPA positron emission tomography for tumour detection in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma and elevated calcitonin levels. Eur.J.Nucl.Med. 2001;28:64–71. [PubMed]
56. Hoegerle S, Altehoefer C, Ghanem N, Koehler G, Waller CF, Scheruebl H, Moser E, Nitzsche E. Whole-body 18F dopa PET for detection of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors. Radiology. 2001;220:373–380. [PubMed]
57. Huynh TT, Pacak K, Brouwers FM, bu-Asab MS, Worrell RA, Walther MM, Elkahloun AG, Goldstein DS, Cleary S, Eisenhofer G. Different expression of catecholamine transporters in phaeochromocytomas from patients with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. Eur.J.Endocrinol. 2005;153:551–563. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
58. Timmers HJ, Pacak K, Bertherat J, Lenders JW, Duet M, Eisenhofer G, Stratakis CA, Niccoli-Sire P, Huy PT, Burnichon N, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP. Mutations associated with succinate dehydrogenase d-related malignant paragangliomas. Clin.Endocrinol.(Oxf) 2007 [PubMed]
59. Havekes B, Corssmit EP, Jansen JC, van der Mey AG, Vriends AH, Romijn JA. Malignant paragangliomas associated with mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase D gene. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab. 2007;92:1245–1248. [PubMed]
60. Ilias I, Yu J, Carrasquillo JA, Chen CC, Eisenhofer G, Whatley M, McElroy B, Pacak K. Superiority of 6-[18F]-fluorodopamine positron emission tomography versus [131I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy in the localization of metastatic pheochromocytoma. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab. 2003;88:4083–4087. [PubMed]
61. van Gelder T, Verhoeven GT, de JP, Oei HY, Krenning EP, Vuzevski VD, van den Meiracker AH. Dopamine-producing paraganglioma not visualized by iodine-123-MIBG scintigraphy. J.Nucl.Med. 1995;36:620–622. [PubMed]
62. Zelinka T, Timmers HJ, Kozupa A, Chen CC, Carrasquillo JA, Reynolds JC, Ling A, Eisenhofer G, Lazurova I, Adams KT, Whatley MA, Widimsky J, Jr., Pacak K. Role of positron emission tomography and bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of bone involvement in metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: specific implications for succinate dehydrogenase enzyme subunit B gene mutations. Endocr.Relat Cancer. 2008;15:311–323. [PubMed]
63. Mamede M, Carrasquillo JA, Chen CC, Del CP, Whatley M, Ilias I, Ayala A, Pacak K. Discordant localization of 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in 6-[18F]-fluorodopamine- and [(123)I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine-negative metastatic pheochromocytoma sites. Nucl.Med.Commun. 2006;27:31–36. [PubMed]
64. Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Favier J, Rustin P, Rieubland C, Kerlan V, Plouin PF, Rotig A, Jeunemaitre X. Functional consequences of a SDHB gene mutation in an apparently sporadic pheochromocytoma. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab. 2002;87:4771–4774. [PubMed]
65. Warburg O. On the origin of cancer cells. Science. 1956;123:309–314. [PubMed]