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Cultured skin fibroblasts or lymphoblastoid cells from eight patients with clinical symptoms of prolidase deficiency were analyzed in terms of enzyme activity, presence of material crossreacting with specific antibodies, biosynthesis of the polypeptide, and mRNA corresponding to the enzyme. There are at least two enzymes that hydrolyze imidodipeptides in these cells and these two enzymes could be separated by an immunochemical procedure. The specific assay for prolidase showed that the enzyme activity was virtually absent in six cell strains and was markedly reduced in two (less than 3% of controls). The activities of the labile enzyme that did not immunoprecipitate with the anti-prolidase antibody were decreased in the cells (30-60% of controls). Cell strains with residual activities of prolidase had immunological polypeptides crossreacting with a Mr 56,000, similar to findings in the normal enzyme. The polypeptide biosynthesis in these cells and the controls was similar. Northern blot analyses revealed the presence of mRNA in the polypeptide-positive cells, yet it was absent in the polypeptide-negative cells. The substrate specificities analyzed in the partially purified enzymes from the polypeptide-positive cell strains differed, presumably due to different mutations. Thus, there seems to be a molecular heterogeneity in prolidase deficiency. There was no apparent relation between the clinical symptoms and the biochemical phenotypes, except that mental retardation was present in the polypeptide-negative patients. The activities of the labile enzyme may not be a major factor in modifying the clinical symptoms.