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Lactate dehydrogenase is one of the antigens targeted in lateral flow immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of malaria. Unique diagnostic peptide targets based on the respective amino-acid sequences to differentiate between P. falciparum and P. vivax lactate dehydrogenase were chosen, synthesized and coupled to rabbit albumin carrier. Anti-peptide antibodies were raised in chickens against the peptides and against each of the recombinant proteins and affinity purified. An antibody against a common epitope detected recombinant P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. yoelii and native P. falciparum and P. vivax protein lactate dehydrogenase. Antibodies against species specific lactate dehydrogenase epitopes differentiated between P. falciparum and P. vivax lactate dehydrogenase. The study supports an anti-peptide antibody approach for the design of malaria diagnostic reagents.