The final sample of participants included 1138 child-parent dyads in the South Bronx and 1353 child-parent dyads in Puerto Rico for a total of 2491 children from 1643 households. Families with 1 child (n = 1009), 2 children (n = 420), and 3 children (n = 214) participated in the study. In the South Bronx, 80.5% of eligible child-parent dyads completed the interview and an 88.7% completion rate was obtained in Puerto Rico (χ2 [1, N = 2943] = 39.43, p < 0.0001).
Study Site Differences: South Bronx and the US Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
displays the sample characteristics for each site. Children living in Puerto Rico were more likely to have asthma, abdominal pain, and headaches than children living in the South Bronx (Goal 3). Mothers in Puerto Rico had higher educational levels than mothers in the South Bronx. Children in Puerto Rico were more likely to live in a 2-parent household than children in the South Bronx. No differences were found for household income, child's age, or gender.
Sample Characteristics by Site
shows site differences for children's internalizing disorders, parent, cultural, and family factors. No site differences were found for children's depressive or anxiety disorders. Parents in Puerto Rico had higher rates of lifetime psychopathology than parents in the South Bronx. Parents in the South Bronx reported higher levels of acculturative stress, although the effect size was small. Parents in Puerto Rico reported less parental monitoring, but their children reported greater parental monitoring than children in the South Bronx. Children in the South Bronx reported greater parent-child involvement than children in Puerto Rico. More children in the South Bronx reported a lifetime history of physical and verbal abuse than island Puerto Rican children.
Children's Internalizing Disorders, Parent, Cultural, and Family Factors by Site
Associations With Children's Physical Health Problems (Goals 1 and 2)
shows that children's physical health measures had the strongest associations with children's internalizing disorders and parental acculturative stress. Children with anxiety disorders were more likely to have parent-reported asthma, abdominal pain, and headaches than children without anxiety disorders. Although children's depressive disorders had larger associations with abdominal pain and headaches than anxiety disorders, the association between depressive disorders and asthma was not significant. Parental acculturative stress was associated with increased likelihood of asthma, abdominal pain, and headaches among children. The largest odds ratio was found for abdominal pain. Children of parents with psychopathology were more likely to have all 3 physical health problems than children of parents with no history of psychopathology.
Adjusted Odds Ratios of Asthma, Abdominal Pain, and Headaches
Fewer associations were found between children's physical health problems and other parent and family level factors. Greater maternal acceptance and good family functioning were associated with lower odds for abdominal pain and headaches. Parent and child reports of parents using coercive discipline were each associated with headaches and asthma, respectively. Parents who reported greater monitoring of their children were less likely to report that their children experienced abdominal pain. Unadjusted and adjusted analyses showed similar associations. Females were less likely to have parent-reported asthma. Older children were less likely to have asthma, but more likely to have abdominal pain and headaches.