PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of ijpsychHomeCurrent issueInstructionsSubmit article
 
Indian J Psychiatry. 2003 Jul-Sep; 45(3): 182–188.
PMCID: PMC2952166

Psychiatric Morbidity of Cannabis Abuse

Abstract

The paper evaluates the hypothesis that cannabis abuse is associated with a broad range of psychiatric disorders in India, an area with relatively high prevalence of cannabis use. Retrospective case-note review of all cases with cannabis related diagnosis over a 11 -year period, for subjects presenting to a tertiary psychiatric hospital in southern India was carried out. Information pertaining to sociodemographic, personal, social, substance-use related, psychiatric and treatment histories, was gathered. Standardized diagnoses were made according to Diagnostic Criteria for Research of the World Health Organization, on the basis of information available.

Cannabis abuse is associated with widespread psychiatric morbidity that spans the major categories of mental disorders under the ICD-10 system, although proportion of patients with psychotic disorders far outweighed those with non-psychotic disorders. Whilst paranoid psychoses were more prevalent, a significant number of patients with affective psychoses, particularly mania, was also noted.

Besides being known as either the causative agent or a potent risk factor in cases of paranoid psychoses, cannabis appears to have similar capabilities with regard to affective psychoses, particularly in cases of mania. It is suggested that cannabis has the potential to act as a "life event stressor" amongst subjects vulnerable to develop affective psychoses and the possible aetiopathogenesis of such a finding is discussed.

Keywords: Cannabis, psychiatric disorders

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (336K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Andréasson S, Allebeck P, Engström A, Rydberg U. Cannabis and schizophrenia. A longitudinal study of Swedish conscripts. Lancet. 1987 Dec 26;2(8574):1483–1486. [PubMed]
  • Basu D, Malhotra A, Bhagat A, Varma VK. Cannabis psychosis and acute schizophrenia. a case-control study from India. Eur Addict Res. 1999 Jun;5(2):71–73. [PubMed]
  • Carney MW, Bacelle L, Robinson B. Psychosis after cannabis abuse. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1984 Apr 7;288(6423):1047–1047. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chaudry HR, Moss HB, Bashir A, Suliman T. Cannabis psychosis following bhang ingestion. Br J Addict. 1991 Sep;86(9):1075–1081. [PubMed]
  • Degenhardt L, Hall W, Lynskey M. Alcohol, cannabis and tobacco use among Australians: a comparison of their associations with other drug use and use disorders, affective and anxiety disorders, and psychosis. Addiction. 2001 Nov;96(11):1603–1614. [PubMed]
  • D'Souza DC, Kosten TR. Cannabinoid antagonists: a treatment in search of an illness. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001 Apr;58(4):330–331. [PubMed]
  • Georgotas A, Zeidenberg P. Observations on the effects of four weeks of heavy marihuana smoking on group interaction and individual behavior. Compr Psychiatry. 1979 Sep-Oct;20(5):427–432. [PubMed]
  • Ghodse AH. Cannabis psychosis. Br J Addict. 1986 Aug;81(4):473–478. [PubMed]
  • Harding T, Knight F. Marihuana-modified mania. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1973 Nov;29(5):635–637. [PubMed]
  • Johns A. Psychiatric effects of cannabis. Br J Psychiatry. 2001 Feb;178:116–122. [PubMed]
  • Post RM, Uhde TW, Putnam FW, Ballenger JC, Berrettini WH. Kindling and carbamazepine in affective illness. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1982 Dec;170(12):717–731. [PubMed]
  • Post RM, Weiss SR. Sensitization, kindling, and anticonvulsants in mania. J Clin Psychiatry. 1989 Dec;50 (Suppl):23–47. [PubMed]
  • Rottanburg D, Robins AH, Ben-Arie O, Teggin A, Elk R. Cannabis-associated psychosis with hypomanic features. Lancet. 1982 Dec 18;2(8312):1364–1366. [PubMed]
  • Strakowski SM, DelBello MP, Fleck DE, Arndt S. The impact of substance abuse on the course of bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2000 Sep 15;48(6):477–485. [PubMed]
  • Talbott JA, Teague JW. Marihuana psychosis. Acute toxic psychosis associated with the use of Cannabis derivatives. JAMA. 1969 Oct 13;210(2):299–302. [PubMed]
  • Tennant FS, Jr, Groesbeck CJ. Psychiatric effects of hashish. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1972 Jul;27(1):133–136. [PubMed]
  • Thomas H. Psychiatric symptoms in cannabis users. Br J Psychiatry. 1993 Aug;163:141–149. [PubMed]
  • Thomas H. A community survey of adverse effects of cannabis use. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1996 Nov;42(3):201–207. [PubMed]
  • Troisi A, Pasini A, Saracco M, Spalletta G. Psychiatric symptoms in male cannabis users not using other illicit drugs. Addiction. 1998 Apr;93(4):487–492. [PubMed]
  • Tsuang MT, Simpson JC, Kronfol Z. Subtypes of drug abuse with psychosis. Demographic characteristics, clinical features, and family history. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1982 Feb;39(2):141–147. [PubMed]
  • Weller RA, Halikas JA. Marijuana use and psychiatric illness: a follow-up study. Am J Psychiatry. 1985 Jul;142(7):848–850. [PubMed]

Articles from Indian Journal of Psychiatry are provided here courtesy of Wolters Kluwer -- Medknow Publications