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This project evaluated the attitudes of psychiatric patients towards receiving either olanzapine or the first-generation antipsychotic agents. Newly admitted patients to a state psychiatric hospital who were either prescribed olanzapine (n=35) or other first-generation antipsychotic agents (n=34) were compared on measure of their personal attitudes toward receiving medicines using the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI). Subjects were evaluated prior to receiving olanzapine and 8 weeks later unless they were discharged or discontinued sooner. The olanzapine-treated group recorded significantly greater improvements on their positive attitude scores toward taking the medicine, and reduced negative attitude scores relative to the comparator group. These results remained statistically significant even after correction of baseline differences between the two groups for the positive attitudes and a statistical trend persisted for negative attitude scores too. During the subsequent 30 month follow-up, significantly fewer of the olanzapine treated subjects (5, 14.3%) were readmitted to the hospital compared with 13 (38.2%) of the comparator group. These data suggest switching patients to olanzapine may improve their attitudes towards taking medicines at least in the short-term. These preliminary data need affirmation or refutation in a controlled random-assignment longer-term clinical trial where specific measures of adherence are evaluated, and where the comparators are the other second generation antipsychotic agents.