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Genetic complementation of fibroblasts from patients with methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) defines a unique class of allelic mutations arising from mutations at the locus encoding the methylmalonyl coenzyme A (CoA) mutase apoenzyme. Various phenotypes of MMA have been delineated including complete absence of enzyme activity (mut0) and abnormal enzyme activity with an elevated Km for adenosylcobalamin (mut-). We describe genetic studies on a cell line (WG1130) from a patient with mut0 MMA which exhibited an unusual complementation phenotype, complementing with three of nine mut0 cell lines and four of five mut- cell lines. This suggests that interallelic complementation occurs between mutant alleles in WG1130 and subsets of alleles associated with both mut0 and mut- phenotypes. The methylmalonyl CoA mutase cDNA was cloned from WG1130 and found to contain a G354----A (Arg93----His) mutation. Gene transfer of this mutant clone into primary fibroblasts from patients with MMA confirms that this mutation expresses a mut0 phenotype when transferred into a mut0 cell line with low levels of mRNA but can contribute to apoenzyme function when transferred into mut cell lines which show correction with WG1130 by somatic cell complementation. These results point to further heterogeneity within both mut0 and mut- and may enable identification of mutations affecting discrete components of apoenzyme function.