We examined 41 patients on day 0 and 28 patients on day 56; 13 (31.7%) patients finished their treatment prematurely. The detoxification of addicted patients is often prematurely ended because of eroded abstinence or other treatment regimes. The characteristics of addicted patients are illustrated in Tables and .
Characteristics of addicted patients
Diagnosis of addicted patients according to ICD-10
Age differences between the addicted patients and the control group were statistically significant (p = 0.048, the Wilcoxon rank-sum test). The groups also differed significantly in gender (contingency tables, the chi-square test). No association between BDV CIC positivity and gender was demonstrated (p = 0.884, contingency tables, chi-square test). The difference in BDV CIC positivity was adjusted for age and gender and was not statistically significant (age p = 0.302, gender p = 0.498, higher order contingency tables, the chi-square test).
A BDV CIC positivity was detected in 36.6% of patients (15/41) on day 0 and in 42.9% (12/28) patients after eight weeks of abstinence (day 56) in comparison with a BDV CIC positivity of 37.3% (47/126) in the control group (Table ). The difference in BDV CIC levels in the serum between these two groups was not statistically significant on day 0 (p = 0.179, contingency tables, the chi-square test) or day 56 (p = 0.223, contingency tables, the chi-square test). There was no reduction in BDV CIC levels over the abstinence period (p = 0.779, contingency tables, goodness of fit test, the chi-square test).
Levels of BDV CIC in addicted patients on day 0 and 56 and in blood donors
We monitored changes in BDV CIC levels during the study on days 0 and 56. For patients who provided both blood samples:
• in three patients we detected a decrease in BDV CIC levels (two patients were BDV CIC positive on day 0 and became negative on day 56, one patient's positivity decreased from mean (++) to low (+));
• in six BDV CIC-positive patients we found no change in BDV CIC levels; and
• in five patients we determined an increase of BDV CIC levels (four patients were BDV CIC negative on day 0 and became positive on day 56).
We looked at the association of BDV CIC positivity and other anamnestic and demographic characteristics:
• twenty-two (53.7%) enrolled patients had a positive psychiatric family history;
• five (12.2%) had a positive history of infectious diseases (hepatitis C);
• infection at the time of blood sampling was present in five (12.2%) patients on day 0 and in two (7.1%) patients on day 56 (the presence of another infection can increase the risk of reactivation of latent BDV infection); and
• thirty-seven (90.2%) patients had pets or other animals (animals can be a reservoir of BDV infection and contact with infected animals increases the risk of BDV infection transmission).
We did not establish any other significant association of BDV infection with other anamnestic and demographic data based on contingency tables, the chi-square test and the Kruskal Wallis test on days 0 and 56:
• gender (day 0 p = 0.706, day 56 p = 0.045);
• psychiatric family history (day 0 p = 0.713, day 56 p = 0.241);
• personal history of infectious diseases (day 0 p = 0.692, day 56 p = 0.813);
• presence of infection at the time of sampling (day 0 p = 0.825, day 56 p = 0.452);
• duration of abuse (day 0 p = 0.918, day 56 p = 0.436);
• diagnosis according to ICD-10 (day 0 p = 0.468, day 56 p = 0.557); and
• contact with animals (day 0 p = 0.611, day 56 p = 0.446).
A higher BDV CIC positivity was significantly associated with lower levels of GGT (gamma-glutamyl transferase) at the beginning of detoxification (p = 0.027, rank correlation with the Kruskal Wallis test) and approached statistical significance with the lower age of addicted patients (p = 0.064, rank correlation with the Kruskal Wallis test).
We proved no association between BDV CIC positivity on day 0 and premature ending of the treatment. Premature ending of the treatment was not associated with BDV CIC positivity on day 0 (p = 0.645, contingency tables, the chi-square test).