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End-of- rotation global evaluations can be subjective, produce inflated grades, lack interrater reliability, and offer information that lacks value. This article outlines the generation of a unique developmental criterion-referenced assessment that applies adult learning theory and the learner, manager, teacher model, and represents an innovative application to the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) 9-point scale.
We describe the process used by Southern Illinois University School of Medicine to develop rotation-specific, criterion-based evaluation anchors that evolved into an effective faculty development exercise.
The intervention gave faculty a clearer understanding of the 6 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies, each rotation's educational goals, and how rotation design affects meaningful work-based assessment. We also describe easily attainable successes in evaluation design and pitfalls that other institutions may be able to avoid. Shifting the evaluation emphasis on the residents' development of competence has made the expectations of rotation faculty more transparent, has facilitated conversations between program director and residents, and has improved the specificity of the tool for feedback. Our findings showed the new approach reduced grade inflation compared with the ABIM end-of-rotation global evaluation form.
We offer the new developmental criterion-referenced assessment as a unique application of the competences to the ABIM 9-point scale as a transferable model for improving the validity and reliability of resident evaluations across graduate medical education programs.
Meaningful evaluation of all 6 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies has remained elusive for many residency programs. The July 2009 Program Requirements for Internal Medicine provide added impetus for improved formative and summative evaluations, including a directive to “define evaluation expectations for each of the six ACGME competencies.” Research shows that an evaluation with clear, observable criteria for each increment on the scale improves reliability,1 and the ACGME suggests that criteria-based evaluations can serve as a motivation for residents to make improvements.2 This article describes a process to apply criterion-referenced anchors for the assessment of internal medicine residents at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine.
The development of an end-of-rotation evaluation tool that uses competency-based criteria as the standards for resident assessment was prompted by our involvement in the ACGME Educational Innovations Project (EIP). Objectives included confronting grade inflation,3,4 poor interrater reliability3,5,6 and inconsistencies observed in faculty's understanding of the ACGME competencies and the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) performance scale. Problems with assessment included differences among attending physicians in the elements that signified competence, and resident preoccupation with “looking good” to attending physicians instead of working on the attainment of competence. During program director feedback sessions, residents began to devalue the importance of faculty evaluations, and that they felt maligned when given ratings lower than their peers.
The Southern Illinois University (SIU) internal medicine residency has a decade of experience using the ABIM form for end-of-rotation evaluations. The form uses a 9-point Likert scale and criterion language for 1 and 9, but lacks descriptors for 2 through 8, causing frustration among faculty and residents. The problems we encountered with the prior evaluation system are similar to those experienced by other programs that use the ABIM format. Interrater reliability was low, and overall grades were inflated. Regardless of a whether residents were in postgraduate year 1 or 3, they expected to receive an evaluation score of 8 or 9 on the 9-point scale, and lower scores were seen as punitive. We missed opportunities to provide valuable feedback to residents because of problems with the evaluation process, and we thought we could ameliorate this with a more criterion-based approach.
We revised the end-of-rotation form and developed a system to guide faculty and residents toward a core principle of competency. This resulted in a global evaluation formatted identically across all rotations but with unique anchor language for every rotation, with an innovative application of the 1 through 9 scale that clearly delineates the behaviors needed to reach each level of competency. Our Competency-Based Resident Assessment (CoBRA) offers a method for integration of the ACGME competencies into resident evaluation across specialties. Through development of a comparative database we were able to establish our historical baseline with the ABIM form, and we tracked individual faculty members' average resident evaluation score in each of the competencies for each level of training. This created a departmental average, allowing faculty members to compare their average to the departmental mean. Simply reporting this data back to the faculty did little to change evaluation behaviors, and this analysis confirmed some of our qualitative assessments previously described.
Before we began with the design of the new evaluation, a committee of physicians and staff reviewed the 6 competencies to determine the guidance available for writing specific evaluation criteria for each competency. The ACGME competencies gave us an ideal starting point, as each is composed of 3 subcompetencies or benchmarks. These not only lend themselves to anchor language, but also suggest a defined path to competency (table 1). For example, the ACGME idealized patient care as “compassionate, appropriate, and effective,” practice-based learning has 3 parts: “investigation and evaluation of their own patient care,” “appraisal and assimilation of scientific evidence,” and “improvements in patient care.”7
Operationally, the set of subcompetencies for practice-based learning were translated as:
We agreed to use the 3-part statements of the ACGME competencies on a 9-point scale with criterion-based language, and customize the form according to each rotation's needs. A benefit of asking faculty to develop the written criteria is that it challenged instructors to question what is “competent,” state their expectations of the skills, knowledge, and attitudes that contribute to resident competency, and, in some cases, redesign the learning environment to facilitate the direct observation of these behaviors.
Our goal was to create a process consistent with evaluation models proposed by Pangaro,8 Miller,9 and Dreyfus10 and use the ABIM 1 to 9 scale. We decided to overlay onto the 1 to 9 scale the “learner, manager, teacher” (LMT) constructs and applied George Miller's “pyramid of learning.” The LMT construct translated the criterion-referenced performance rating into functions that were broadly accepted by the residents and faculty.11 Miller9 promoted a framework for assessing clinical competence with either standardized patients or in work situations, and proposed 4 levels: knows, knows how, shows how, and does (figure 1). At SIU, faculty gives a 1 to 4 rating when residents are unable to meet the expectations of faculty. Knowing, but not knowing how is a critical distinction as residents transition from learner to manager. The ABIM form equates a performance rating of 1 to 3 as “may endanger patient safety,” and a 4 as “marginal.” Our interpretation of a learner as not yet ready to perform the duties and responsibilities of a resident/manager is internally consistent with this. We use a 5 to 7 rating when the faculty recognizes the resident as an effective manager who meets the faculty's expectations across the competencies by the end of the rotation. We reserve an 8 rating for residents who show an ability to teach and lead in the subcompetencies. Only the Clinical Competency Committee can award a rating of a 9. It requires a score of 8 on all competencies and publications or another meaningful contribution to the goals of the EIP.
Figure 2 shows the scale as it appears on the end-of-the-month global evaluation forms. No numbers are used; a checkbox indicates only criteria mastered and those not yet met. Faculty writes 2 criteria-based statements for each benchmark or subcompetency. The first criterion describes the expectation for residents at the beginning of the rotation, and the second describes the expectation for residents as they leave the rotation. Faculty evaluates residents only at the end of the rotation, placing the resident along a developmental continuum and documenting his/her progress from learner to manager to teacher/leader. Because a rating of 9, “scholar,” is awarded only by the Clinical Competency Committee, this score was removed from evaluation form.
The following paragraphs describe the levels mentioned on figure 2.
Level I–Learner. The baseline or minimum knowledge that faculty expect of residents before they start a rotation (1–4).
Level II–Manager. The knowledge that faculty expects residents to demonstrate when they finish the rotation. These are an extension of Level I but contain more advanced performance criteria (5–7).
Level III–Teacher/Leader. Mastery of all parts of Levels I and II, and the ability to disseminate to others an understanding of the multifaceted correct methods to deliver safe and patient-centered medical care (8).
Level IV–Scholar (not shown on the evaluation form). The promotion of the goals of the EIP and/or publishing in peer-reviewed journals (9).
The LMT overlay allowed us to define more clearly how this scale measures competency. Because each step on the scale represents mastery of the materials representing all prior numbers (a Guttman scale), we could use this method of evaluation to foster constructive developmental assessment sessions. In a Guttman scale, items have a cumulative property and are arranged from least to most extreme. If a resident fails an item, he/she cannot attain the next higher level until mastering that item.12 Lou Pangaro8 incorporated a Guttman scale in his 4-stage reporter-interpreter, manager, and educator (RIME) model, recommending that residents be elevated to the next level on the scale only when the subordinate skills have been mastered and demonstrated.
We eliminated the numbers on the evaluation form to focus residents' attention on personal growth in the field of medicine, rather than the achievement of top scores. The numbers have been retained for our comparative database, for reporting to the ABIM. A goal for our evaluation sessions is for faculty and residents to discuss specific, concrete issues related to the anchoring language to improve the accuracy of the evaluation and the quality of the feedback.
Instead of using a department-wide evaluation, we asked each division sponsoring a rotation to prepare anchoring language to evaluate each competency. We did this for several reasons. First, we wanted to recognize that different groups of physicians could have different views on behaviors that demonstrate competency in the specialty and wanted anchoring language that reflected each rotation's particular interpretation of the ACGME competencies to assist with orientation (“this is what we expect”) and for use in constructive feedback. Second, we recognized the potential for faculty development around the competencies, particularly practice-based learning and systems-based practice. We wanted faculty to work collaboratively to set subcompetency expectations, and wanted their buy-in for the change in evaluation methodology.
We supplied faculty with tools, including the annotated descriptions of the 6 competencies (table 1), Bloom's taxonomy of high-order thinking skills, that instructors traditionally use to write evaluations, and examples of observable criteria from other residency programs' evaluations listed under each of the 3 parts of the 6 competencies.13 This provided faculty with specific, objective definitions. The overall approach focused on measuring the resident against the scale.14
The next step involved integration of this plan into our database using a commercial evaluation software system. Multiple formats were developed and explored, from yes/no statements to incorporating the scale into the assessment of each competency. All evaluation forms used in our program were modified to reflect the 1 to 8 scale but only the rotational end-of-month forms have been anchored around a Guttman scale. Expectations for resident performance that includes but goes beyond rotation performance are termed milestones of participation (table 2). Each area of nonparticipation for a given resident will reduce the score in professionalism reported to the ABIM by one-half of a point.
We discovered that faculty required a great deal of support in writing anchors for the subcompetencies. The educational bonding generated by faculty during an inclusive review process was absolutely crucial to a good end product, and problems arose when divisions asked a single faculty member to write the anchors. We introduced the new evaluation to residents in a series of all-resident meetings, emphasizing the ability of this approach to show residents the specific skills or elements of performance they needed to address. Residents quickly accepted the idea that an intern might begin with a rating of 3—a score previously understood as disastrous at any stage of training—and the process focused on whether he/she moved up the scale during training. Residents noted that the clear expectations provided through the new process encouraged them to “show” attending physicians their skill level, a definite boost for the level of enthusiasm in our program.
After implementing the new evaluation, it became clear that problems existed in nearly all rotations. A common issue involved ensuring that faculty had sufficient time to directly observe residents to assess their performance. The literature provides ample evidence that direct observation of resident performance is essential for valid and reliable evaluation,15 but the working lives of faculty and residents have been changed irrevocably by adoption of the ACGME duty hour standards and caps on admissions and patient census. Faculty across the country spend too little time observing residents as they interact with patients.16 To address this issue, some divisions restructured their learning environment; others revised their competency expectations, a process that we supported–as long as it was done with academic integrity. Few rotations successfully implemented the first iteration of the evaluation without the need for changes.
One solution for restructuring came from our hospitalist rotation: a faculty evaluator who was not on service was placed on hospital patient care units as a resident evaluator. The quality of education and evaluation improved, yet this approach likely is not possible on every rotation. Another solution adopted by many rotations to gain more individual input into the evaluations included meeting at the end of each rotation and filling in a group evaluation based on documentation completed earlier. A group evaluation has the advantage of providing a broader perspective on performance with less subjectivity than traditional end-of-rotation evaluations completed by individuals. Group meetings also allow for ongoing “calibration” of divisional faculty as they use the methodology and provide a work-around when individual attending physicians spend too little time with residents to make an evaluation of all 6 competencies. Fears of one strong personality dominating the discussion or opinion of the resident are minimized when faculty follow guidelines.17 The group evaluation also solved the problem that a single evaluator was “unable to assess” a dimension of performance because it was likely observed by another faculty member.
The commitment required for direct observation raised questions about what was being measured: clinical performance or clinical competency. We reconciled this question by noting it is the sum of all performances measured against the standards of competency that determined a resident's functional level. Divisions responded by creating an end-of-rotation evaluation. At the departmental level, we tracked every faculty member's participation as part of our faculty evaluation dashboard, with the potential to use this information for promotion and tenure.
We have begun to gather data to determine if the new process is indeed more effective than the previous evaluation model. Initial data stem from one categorical residency program spanning 19 months of development and implementation of CoBRA and shows statistically significant improvements in evaluation. Table 3 shows how the new evaluation form reduced the number of 8 ratings awarded by faculty to interns, even when correcting for the number of tests done (Bonferroni correction).
Table 4 shows how the new method of evaluation increased the number of 3 ratings earned by residents by competency across the 3 years of training. Before the adjustment for the number of tests done (Bonferroni correction), all increases were statistically significant. However, after application of the Bonferroni adjustment, increases to the number of 3 ratings awarded in interpersonal and communication skills and system-based practice failed to retain statistical significance.
Our early experience with feedback to residents and faculty has yielded positive results. The faculty who took part in the collaborative effort to create the criteria offered anecdotal evidence of significant improvement of feedback to residents. Faculty members think they are more effective in communicating strengths and weaknesses to residents. Residents now can review the assessment tool prior to the rotation, and think that faculty expectations are clearly delineated.
By entering annual data into a comparative database, program directors can use CoBRA to determine the mean score for a competency among all residents at any level of training. Each resident can then compare his/her mean score with the resident average. These data indicate much more than identifying “hawks” (ie, strict raters) and “doves” (ie, lenient raters). It exposes evaluators who routinely skip evaluating certain competencies, such as practice-based learning and improvement (PBLI) or system-based practice, and reveals weaknesses in the curriculum when all or most residents fail certain criteria. We are encouraged by the statistically significant trends observed in our comparison of CoBRA with the ABIM form for end-of-rotation evaluations. Grade inflation has been positively affected, as the number of interns receiving a score of 8 has decreased, and the number of 3 ratings has increased across all levels of training.
Across the 6 ACGME competencies, we have created a list of observable behaviors and chose to incorporate the departmental values of teaching excellence and scholarship into the scale. We are optimistic this methodology will provide important feedback tailored more specifically to residents' month-by-month progress by reducing the focus on numerical scores and the faculty propensity to inflate them.
Greater alignment between the curriculum guides and evaluation is another benefit derived from the creation of division-specific criteria. We urged divisions to use their curriculum guides in writing their criteria. Where curriculum guides were weak, faculty strengthened them before beginning the development of the criteria. In divisions with strong, clear curriculum guides, alignment with the criteria was easier and the transition nearly seamless. Another positive aspect of CoBRA is ongoing faculty development. Requiring faculty to write criteria based on the competencies forces the faculty to face its level of comfort with all of them.
Ownership of the evaluation criteria by all faculty members has been a key element of the success we have experienced to date. The project has proven to be a labor-intensive undertaking, but the ongoing faculty development, the focus on evaluation as a part of teaching, and the clarifying effects on goals and objectives within our department are positive returns for the time investment.
Our approach has limitations. A single measurement tool cannot successfully evaluate residents in a comprehensive or perfect way. Research has demonstrated that using multiple evaluation methods is most efficacious.18 The SIU Internal Medicine Residency has a multisource evaluation system that informs the semiannual feedback sessions of the program director and, later, the resident portfolio; the CoBRAs are just one part of a system of resident assessment. Our findings also are limited to a single department's data and culture. We look forward to the opportunity to collaborate with members of the learning community created around the EIP programs on a broader test of CoBRA. Plans call for implementation of CoBRA across several EIP programs on a hospital-based rotation. We believe the process described here shows great promise as a “transportable” component to other graduate medical education programs and will foster greater transparency in global evaluations. It is our hope that the graduate medical education community will explore, refine, and adopt the CoBRA scale into the fabric of its evaluation process.
All authors are in the Department of Internal Medicine, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine: Andrew Varney, MD, is the Program Director and an Associate Professor; Christine Todd, MD, is the Associate Program Director and an Associate Professor; Susan Hingle, MD, is the Associate Program Director and an Associate Professor; and Michael Clark is the Educational Innovations Project Coordinator.
The authors received no outside funding for this work. To the authors' knowledge, no conflict of interest, financial or other, exists.
Special thanks to David Steward, MD, Department Chair, for his support in this project.
Thanks to Phillip Johnson, PhD, and Steve Sandstrom for their editorial review.
Thanks to Larry F. Hughes, PhD, for his statistical support.