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a) Mucoceles may occur in the pharynx, under the tongue, and under the skin of the neck.
e) The dog has an anal sac abscess, which should be lanced once it develops a discernible “head” or soft spot. Systemic antibiotics are indicated in animals with abscesses, as opposed to those with uncomplicated anal sacculitis.
d) A large amount of intraabdominal fat would cause abdominal distension and provide excellent serosal detail on radiographs. Fat causes the intestines (which have a water density) to have excellent contrast. Effusion would obscure serosal contrast in the abdomen. Lymphadenopathy would probably decrease serosal contrast. Hepatic failure would cause weight loss and/or ascites, both of which would decrease contrast.
b) The obvious pain in the perineal area would best be explained by inflammation or a foreign object. Severe inflammation is often caused by perianal fistulae, which are common in German shepherds. Polyps are an unlikely cause of constipation. The other causes listed would not be likely to cause such intense pain.
d) This is probably normal peritoneal fluid.
c) The causative agent of protozoal myelitis is S. neurona.
b) Except for a return to heat (21 days), none of the procedures is accurate before 30 days.
c) Actinomycosis usually involves bone. Tuberculosis can be diagnosed using a tuberculin test. Caseous lymphadenitis occurs in sheep and goats. Ulcerative lymphangitis is an extremely rare disease involving the feet of cattle.
d) Because of the copious loss of saliva, which is rich in bicarbonate, cattle become acidotic and hemoconcentrated when the esophagus is obstructed.
c) Collecting more than 3 mL could precipitate hypovolemic shock.
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