The authors express their appreciation to Jordan Hiller (JMP Genomics) Liv McMillan, Divya Rajpoot, Jacklyn Walter and Jerod Rasmussen for their technical support. The genotyping was performed by Jennifer Webster and Drs. David Craig and Matt Huentelman of TGen. We want to acknowledge the support and numerous contributions by the ADNI investigators and the ADNI Industry Advisory Board (Pfizer Inc., Wyeth Research, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly and Company, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck & Co. Inc., AstraZeneca AB, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Alzheimer's Association, Eisai Global Clinical Development, Elan Corporation plc, Forest Laboratories), and the Institute for the Study of Aging, with participation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health. We gratefully acknowledge the participation of the ADNI subjects and their family members. Genotyping was performed at The Translational Genomics Institute, Phoenix AZ, by Jennifer Webster and Drs. David Craig and Matt Huentelman. Sample processing, storage and distribution were provided by the NIA-sponsored National Cell Repository for Alzheimer's Disease by Dr. Tatiana Foroud and Kelley Faber. Sample verification and quality control bioinformatics were provided by Drs. Li Shen, Sungeun Kim and Kwangsik Nho of the Indiana University Center for Neuroimaging, Nathan Pankratz of the IU Dept of Medical and Molecular Genetics, and Bryan DeChairo of Pfizer, Inc.
Data used in the preparation of this article were obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database (www.loni.ucla.edu\ADNI
). The ADNI was launched in 2003 by the National Institute on Aging (NIA), the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), private pharmaceutical companies and non-profit organizations, as a $60 million, 5-year public-private partnership. The primary goal of ADNI has been to test whether serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), other biological markers, and clinical and neuropsychological assessment can be combined to measure the progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD). Determination of sensitive and specific markers of very early AD progression is intended to aid researchers and clinicians to develop new treatments and monitor their effectiveness, as well as lessen the time and cost of clinical trials.
The Principle Investigator of this initiative is Michael W. Weiner, M.D., VA Medical Center and University of California – San Francisco. ADNI is the result of efforts of many co-investigators from a broad range of academic institutions and private corporations, and subjects have been recruited from over 50 sites across the U.S. and Canada.
FUNDING: This work was supported by National Institutes of Health grants AG16573. NS211328, AG24373, DK73691, AG16573, and NS41850; a Doris Duke Clinical Interfaces Award, and CIRM Comprehensive Grant RC1-00353-1 awarded to D.C.W. Dr. Schork is funded in part by The National Institute on Aging Longevity Consortium [grant number U19 AG023122-01] and the Scripps Translational Sciences Institute Clinical Translational Science Award [NIH/NCRR Grant Number UL1 RR025774]. This analysis was supported by grants to The Transdisciplinary Imaging Genetics Center (TIGC-P20 RR020837-01), the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI U01 AG024904-01, and supplement 3U01AG024904-03S5), the National Institute of Aging, the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIH), the Functional Imaging Biomedical Informatics Research Network (FBIRN U24-RR021992, National Center for Research Resources), commercial support from Vanda Pharmaceuticals, and private support from an anonymous Foundation and anonymous donations. Additional contributions made through the Foundation for the NIH from Merck & Co. Inc., Pfizer, Inc., and Gene Network Sciences, Inc. partially supported the genotyping results reported here. Data collection and sharing for this project was funded by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI; Principal Investigator: Michael Weiner; NIH grant and supplement). ADNI is funded by the National Institute on Aging, the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), and through generous contributions from the following: Pfizer Inc., Wyeth Research, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly and Company, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck & Co. Inc., AstraZeneca AB, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Alzheimer's Association, Eisai Global Clinical Development, Elan Corporation plc, Forest Laboratories, and the Institute for the Study of Aging, with participation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Industry partnerships are coordinated through the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health. The grantee organization is the Northern California Institute for Research and Education, and the study is coordinated by the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study at the University of California, San Diego. ADNI data are disseminated by the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging at the University of California, Los Angeles. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.