1. Blader JC, Carlson GA. Increased rates of bipolar disorder diagnoses among U.S. child, adolescent, and adult inpatients, 1996-2004. Biological Psychiatry. 2007;62:107–114. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 2. Moreno C, Laje G, Blanco C, et al. National Trends in the Outpatient Diagnosis and Treatment of Bipolar Disorder in Youth. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2007;64:1032–1039. [PubMed] 3. Healy D. The latest mania: selling bipolar disorder. PLoS Medicine. 2006;3:e185. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 4. Klein RG, Pine DS, Klein DF. Resolved: Mania is mistaken for ADHD in prepubertal children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 1998;37:1093–1096. [PubMed] 5. Faraone SV, Glatt SJ, Tsuang MT. The genetics of pediatric-onset bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry. 2003;53:970–977. [PubMed] 6. Geller B, Tillman R. Prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar I disorder: review of diagnostic validation by Robins and Guze criteria. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 2005;66(Suppl 7):21–28. [PubMed] 7. Youngstrom EA, Birmaher B, Findling RL. Pediatric bipolar disorder: Validity, phenomenology, and recommendations for diagnosis Bipolar Disorders. 2008;10:194–214. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
8. Goodwin FK, Jamison KR. Manic-depressive illness. ed 2nd Oxford University Press; New York: 2007.
9. Perlis R, Miyahara S, Marangell LB, et al. Long-Term implications of early onset in bipolar disorder: data from the first 1000 participants in the systematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder (STEP-BD) Biological Psychiatry. 2004;55:875–881. [PubMed] 10. Birmaher B, Axelson D, Strober M, et al. Clinical course of children and adolescents with bipolar spectrum disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2006;63:175–183. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 11. Geller B, Tillman R, Bolhofner K, et al. Child bipolar I disorder: prospective continuity with adult bipolar I disorder; characteristics of second and third episodes; predictors of 8-year outcome. Archives of general psychiatry. 2008;65:1125–1133. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 12. Lewinsohn PM, Seeley JR, Buckley ME, et al. Bipolar disorder in adolescence and young adulthood. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2002;11:461–476. [PubMed]
13. Camara W, Nathan J, Puente A. Psychological test usage in professional psychology: Report of the APA practice and science directorates. American Psychological Association; Washington, DC: 1998. p. 51.
14. Youngstrom EA. Pediatric bipolar disorder. In: Mash EJ, Barkley RA, editors. Assessment of Childhood Disorders. ed 4th Guilford Press; New York: 2007. pp. 253–304.
15. Youngstrom EA. Evidence-based trategies for the assessment of developmental psychopathology: Measuring prediction, prescription, and processs. In: Miklowitz DJ, Craighead WE, Craighead L, editors. Developmental psychopathology. Wiley; New York: 2008. pp. 34–77.
16. World Health Organization The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines. World Health Organization; London: 1992.
17. American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. ed 4th--Text Revision Author; Washington, DC: 2001.
18. Ghaemi SN, Bauer M, Cassidy F, et al. Diagnostic guidelines for bipolar disorder: a summary of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Diagnostic Guidelines Task Force Report. Bipolar disorders. 2008;10:117–128. [PubMed] 19. Judd LL, Akiskal HS, Schettler PJ, et al. Psychosocial disability in the course of bipolar I and II disorders: A prospective, comparative, longitudinal study. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2005;62:1322–1330. [PubMed]
20. Kraepelin E. Manic-depressive insanity and paranoia. Livingstone; Edinburgh: 1921.
21. Berk M, Dodd S. Bipolar II disorder: a review. Bipolar Disorders. 2005;7:11–21. [PubMed]
22. Akiskal HS, Pinto O. The soft bipolar spectrum: footnotes to Kraepelin on the interface of hypomania, temperament and depression. In: Marneros A, Angst J, editors. Bipolar Disorders: 100 years after manic depressive insanity. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands; Norwell, MA: 2000. pp. 37–62.
23. Youngstrom EA, Youngstrom JK, Starr M. Bipolar Diagnoses in Community Mental Health: Achenbach CBCL Profiles and Patterns of Comorbidity. Biological Psychiatry. 2005;58:569–575. [PubMed] 24. Merikangas KR, Akiskal HS, Angst J, et al. Lifetime and 12-Month Prevalence of Bipolar Spectrum Disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2007;64:543–552. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 25. Grant BF, Stinson FS, Hasin DS, et al. Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidity of bipolar I disorder and axis I and II disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 2005;66:1205–1215. [PubMed] 26. Findling RL, Youngstrom EA, McNamara NK, et al. Early symptoms of mania and the role of parental risk. Bipolar Disorders. 2005;7:623–634. [PubMed] 27. Findling RL, Frazier TW, Youngstrom EA, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of divalproex monotherapy in the treatment of symptomatic youth at high risk for developing bipolar disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2007;68:781–788. [PubMed] 28. Kochman FJ, Hantouche E, Ferrari P, et al. Cyclothymic temperament as a prospective predictor of bipolarity and suicidality in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2005;85:181–189. [PubMed] 29. Hantouche EG, Akiskal HS. Toward a definition of a cyclothymic behavioral endophenotype: which traits tap the familial diathesis for bipolar II disorder? Journal of affective disorders. 2006;96:233–237. [PubMed] 30. Klein DN, Depue RA, Slater JF. Inventory identification of cyclothymia. IX. Validation in offspring of bipolar I patients. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1986;43:441–445. [PubMed] 31. Alloy LB, Abramson LY, Walshaw PD, et al. Behavioral Approach System and Behavioral Inhibition System sensitivities and bipolar spectrum disorders: prospective prediction of bipolar mood episodes. Bipolar disorders. 2008;10:310–322. [PubMed] 32. Danielson CK, Youngstrom EA, Findling RL, et al. Discriminative validity of the General Behavior Inventory using youth report. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2003;31:29–39. [PubMed] 33. Youngstrom EA, Findling RL, Danielson CK, et al. Discriminative validity of parent report of hypomanic and depressive symptoms on the General Behavior Inventory. Psychological Assessment. 2001;13:267–276. [PubMed] 34. Depue RA, Slater JF, Wolfstetter-Kausch H, et al. A behavioral paradigm for identifying persons at risk for bipolar depressive disorder: A conceptual framework and five validation studies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1981;90:381–437. [PubMed] 35. Judd LL, Akiskal HS. The prevalence and disability of bipolar spectrum disorders in the US population: re-analysis of the ECA database taking into account subthreshold cases. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2003;73:123–131. [PubMed] 36. Merikangas KR, Herrell R, Swendsen J, et al. Specificity of bipolar spectrum conditions in the comorbidity of mood and substance use disorders: Results from the Zurich cohort study. Archives of general psychiatry. 2008;65:47–52. [PubMed] 37. Axelson DA, Birmaher B, Strober M, et al. Phenomenology of children and adolescents with bipolar spectrum disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2006;63:1139–1148. [PubMed] 38. Joseph M, Youngstrom EA, Soares JC. Antidepressant-Coincident Mania in Children and Adolescents Treated with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Future Medicine. in press. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 39. Leibenluft E, Charney DS, Towbin KE, et al. Defining clinical phenotypes of juvenile mania. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 2003;160:430–437. [PubMed] 40. Kowatch RA, Youngstrom EA, Danielyan A, et al. Review and meta-analysis of the phenomenology and clinical characteristics of mania in children and adolescents. Bipolar Disorders. 2005;7:483–496. [PubMed]
41. Youngstrom EA. Definitional issues in bipolar disorder across the life cycle. Clinical Psychology: Science & Practice. in press.
42. Stedman JM, Hatch JP, Schoenfeld LS. The current status of psychological assessment training in graduate and professional schools. Journal of personality assessment. 2001;77:398–407. [PubMed] 43. Meyer SE, Carlson GA, Youngstrom E, et al. Long-term outcomes of youth who manifested the CBCL-Pediatric Bipolar Disorder phenotype during childhood and/or adolescence. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2008 [PubMed] 44. Lewinsohn PM, Klein DN, Seeley J. Bipolar disorder during adolescence and young adulthood in a community sample. Bipolar Disorders. 2000;2:281–293. [PubMed] 45. Tsuchiya KJ, Byrne M, Mortensen PB. Risk factors in relation to an emergence of bipolar disorder: A systematic review. Bipolar Disorders. 2003;5:231–242. [PubMed] 46. Hodgins S, Faucher B, Zarac A, et al. Children of parents with bipolar disorder. A population at high risk for major affective disorders. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2002;11:533–553. [PubMed] 47. Smoller JW, Finn CT. Family, twin, and adoption studies of bipolar disorder. American journal of medical genetics. Part C, Seminars in medical genetics. 2003;123C:48–58. [PubMed] 48. Youngstrom EA, Duax J. Evidence based assessment of pediatric bipolar disorder, part 1: Base rate and family history. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2005;44:712–717. [PubMed] 49. Youngstrom EA, Findling RL, Youngstrom JK, et al. Toward an evidence-based assessment of pediatric bipolar disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. 2005;34:433–448. [PubMed] 50. Strakowski SM, Flaum M, Amador X, et al. Racial differences in the diagnosis of psychosis. Schizophrenia Research. 1996;21:117–124. [PubMed] 51. DelBello MP, Lopez-Larson MP, Soutullo CA, et al. Effects of race on psychiatric diagnosis of hospitalized adolescents: A retrospective chart review. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2001;11:95–103. [PubMed] 52. Duffy A, Alda M, Kutcher S, et al. Psychiatric symptoms and syndromes among adolescent children of parents with lithium-responsive or lithium-nonresponsive bipolar disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 1998;155:431–433. [PubMed]
53. Straus SE, Richardson WS, Glasziou P, et al. Evidence-based medicine: How to practice and teach EBM. ed 3rd Churchill Livingstone; New York: 2005.
54. Meehl PE. Clinical versus statistical prediction: A theoretical analysis and a review of the evidence. University of Minnesota Press; Minneapolis: 1954.
55. Dawes RM, Faust D, Meehl PE. Clinical versus actuarial judgment. Science. 1989;243:1668–1674. [PubMed]
56. Grove WM, Meehl PE. Comparative efficiency of informal (subjective, impressionistic) and formal (mechanical, algorithmic) prediction procedures: The clinical-statistical controversy. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law. 1996;2:293–323.
57. Gigerenzer G, Hoffrage U. How to improve Bayesian reasoning without instruction: Frequency formats. Psychological Review. 1995;102:684–704.
58. Davidow J, Levinson EM. Heuristic principles and cognitive bias in decision making: Implications for assessment in school psychology. Psychology in the Schools. 1993;30:351–361.
59. Gigerenzer G. The adaptive toolbox: toward a darwinian rationality. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. 2001;47:113–143. [PubMed] 60. Lish JD, Dime-Meenan S, Whybrow PC, et al. The National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association (DMDA) survey of bipolar members. Journal of Affective Disorders. 1994;31:281–294. [PubMed] 61. Hirschfeld RM, Lewis L, Vornik LA. Perceptions and impact of bipolar disorder: how far have we really come? Results of the national depressive and manic-depressive association 2000 survey of individuals with bipolar disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2003;64:161–174. [PubMed] 62. Kessler RC, Rubinow DR, Holmes C, et al. The epidemiology of DSM-III-R bipolar I disorder in a general population survey. Psychological Medicine. 1997;27:1079–1089. [PubMed]
63. Zuckerman M. Vulnerability to psychopathology: A biosocial model. American Psychological Association; Washington, DC: 1999.
64. Youngstrom JK, Youngstrom EA. Bipolar disorder underdiagnosed in community mental health. Biennial Meeting of the International Society of Bipolar Disorders; Delhi, India.
65. Dubicka B, Carlson GA, Vail A, et al. Prepubertal mania: diagnostic differences between US and UK clinicians. European child & adolescent psychiatry. 2008;17:153–161. [PubMed] 66. Mackin P, Targum SD, Kalali A, et al. Culture and assessment of manic symptoms. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2006;189:379–380. [PubMed]
67. Jenkins M, Youngstrom JK, Perez Algorta G, et al. How the nomogram improves interpretation of assessment information by clinicians in the community; Annual Convention of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapy; Orlando, FL. 2008, November.
68. gadoAchenbach TM, Rescorla LA. Manual for the ASEBA School-Age Forms & Profiles. University of Vermont; Burlington, VT: 2001.
69. Gadow KD, Sprafkin J. Child Symptom Inventories Manual. Checkmate Plus; Stony Brook, NY: 1994.
70. Reynolds CR, Kamphaus R. BASC-2 Behavior Assessment System for Children. AGS; Circle Pines, MN: 2004.
71. Mick E, Biederman J, Pandina G, et al. A preliminary meta-analysis of the child behavior checklist in pediatric bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry. 2003;53:1021–1027. [PubMed] 72. Kahana SY, Youngstrom EA, Findling RL, et al. Employing parent, teacher, and youth self-report checklists in identifying pediatric bipolar spectrum disorders: an examination of diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2003;13:471–488. [PubMed] 73. Youngstrom EA, Findling RL, Calabrese JR, et al. Comparing the diagnostic accuracy of six potential screening instruments for bipolar disorder in youths aged 5 to 17 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2004;43:847–858. [PubMed]
74. Sackett DL, Straus SE, Richardson WS, et al. Evidence-based medicine: How to practice and teach EBM. ed 2nd Churchill Livingstone; New York: 2000.
75. Scheffer RE, Kowatch RA, Carmody T, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of mixed amphetamine salts for symptoms of comorbid ADHD in pediatric bipolar disorder after mood stabilization with divalproex sodium. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 2005;162:58–64. [PubMed] 76. Findling RL, McNamara NK, Gracious BL, et al. Combination lithium and divalproex in pediatric bipolarity. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2003;42:895–901. [PubMed] 77. Findling RL, McNamara NK, Stansbrey R, et al. Combination lithium and divalproex sodium in pediatric bipolar symptom restabilization. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2006;45:142–148. [PubMed] 78. Miklowitz DJ, Chang KD. Prevention of bipolar disorder in at-risk children: theoretical assumptions and empirical foundations. Development and psychopathology. 2008;20:881–897. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 79. Fristad MA. Psychoeducational treatment for school-aged children with bipolar disorder. Development & Psychopathology. 2006;18:1289–1306. [PubMed] 80. Youngstrom EA, Frazier TW, Findling RL, et al. Developing a ten item short form of the Parent General Behavior Inventory to assess for juvenile mania and hypomania. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2008;69:831–839. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 81. Wagner KD, Findling RL, Emslie GJ, et al. Validation of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire for Bipolar Disorders in Adolescents. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2006;67:827–830. [PubMed] 82. Youngstrom EA, Meyers OI, Demeter C, et al. Comparing diagnostic checklists for pediatric bipolar disorder in academic and community mental health settings. Bipolar Disorders. 2005;7:507–517. [PubMed] 83. Pavuluri MN, Henry DB, Devineni B, et al. Child mania rating scale: Development, reliability, and validity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2006;45:550–560. [PubMed] 84. Henry DB, Pavuluri MN, Youngstrom E, et al. Accuracy of brief and full forms of the Child Mania Rating Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2008;64:368–381. [PubMed] 85. Youngstrom EA, Meyers OI, Youngstrom JK, et al. Comparing the effects of sampling designs on the diagnostic accuracy of eight promising screening algorithms for pediatric bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry. 2006;60:1013–1019. [PubMed] 86. Bossuyt PM, Reitsma JB, Bruns DE, et al. Towards complete and accurate reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy: The STARD Initiative. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2003;138:40–44. [PubMed] 87. Youngstrom EA, Kogos Youngstrom J. Evidence based assessment of pediatric bipolar disorder, part 2: Incorporating information from behavior checklists. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2005;44:823–828. [PubMed]
88. Sechrest L, Davis MF, Stickle TR, et al. Understanding “method” variance. In: Bickman L, editor. Research design: Donald Campbell’s legacy. Sage; Newbury Park, CA: 2000. pp. 63–88.
89. Geller B, Warner K, Williams M, et al. Prepubertal and young adolescent bipolarity versus ADHD: Assessment and validity using the WASH-U-KSADS, CBCL and TRF. Journal of Affective Disorders. 1998;51:93–100. [PubMed] 90. Hazell PL, Lewin TJ, Carr VJ. Confirmation that Child Behavior Checklist clinical scales discriminate juvenile mania from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 1999;35:199–203. [PubMed] 91. Youngstrom EA, Meyers O, Youngstrom JK, et al. Diagnostic and measurement issues in the assessment of pediatric bipolar disorder: Implications for understanding mood disorder across the life cycle. Development and Psychopathology. 2006;18:989–1021. [PubMed]
92. Loeber R, Green SM, Lahey BB. Mental health professionals’ perception of the utility of children, mothers, and teachers as informants on childhood psychopathology. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. 1990;19:136–143.
93. Dell’Osso L, Pini S, Cassano GB, et al. Insight into illness in patients with mania, mixed mania, bipolar depression and major depression with psychotic features. Bipolar Disorders. 2002;4:315–322. [PubMed] 94. Youngstrom EA, Findling RL, Calabrese JR. Effects of adolescent manic symptoms on agreement between youth, parent, and teacher ratings of behavior problems. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2004;82:S5–S16. [PubMed] 95. Youngstrom EA, Joseph MF, Greene J. Comparing the psychometric properties of multiple teacher report instruments as predictors of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. J Clin Psychol. 2008;64:382–401. [PubMed] 96. Achenbach TM, McConaughy SH, Howell CT. Child/Adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: Implication of cross-informant correlations for situational specificity. Psychological Bulletin. 1987;101:213–232. [PubMed] 97. Carlson GA, Youngstrom EA. Clinical implications of pervasive manic symptoms in children. Biological Psychiatry. 2003;53:1050–1058. [PubMed]
98. Kraemer HC, Lowe KK, Kupfer DJ. To Your Health: How to Understand What Research Tells Us about Risk. Oxford University Press; New York: 2005.
99. Kowatch RA, Fristad MA, Birmaher B, et al. Treatment guidelines for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2005;44:213–235. [PubMed]
100. Mechanic D. Mental Health and Social Policy. Prentice-Hall, Inc.; Englewood Cliffs, NJ: 1989.
101. Garb HN. Studying the clinician: Judgment research and psychological assessment. American Psychological Association; Washington, DC: 1998.
102. Nottelmann E, Biederman J, Birmaher B, et al. National Institute of Mental Health research roundtable on prepubertal bipolar disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2001;40:871–878. [PubMed] 103. Kaufman J, Birmaher B, Brent D, et al. Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL): Initial reliability and validity data. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 1997;36:980–988. [PubMed] 104. Geller B, Zimerman B, Williams M, et al. Reliability of the Washington University in St. Louis Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (WASH-U-KSADS) mania and rapid cycling sections. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2001;40:450–455. [PubMed] 105. Weller EB, Weller RA, Fristad MA, et al. Children’s Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (ChIPS) Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2000;39:76–84. [PubMed] 106. Geller B, Zimerman B, Williams M, et al. Phenomenology of prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder: examples of elated mood, grandiose behaviors, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts and hypersexuality. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2002;12:3–9. [PubMed] 107. Galanter CA, Leibenluft E. Frontiers between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder. Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America. 2008;17:325–346. viii–ix. [PubMed] 108. Quinn CA, Fristad MA. Defining and identifying early onset bipolar spectrum disorder. Current Psychiatry Reports. 2004;6:101–107. [PubMed] 109. Masi G, Perugi G, Millepiedi S, et al. Clinical implications of DSM-IV subtyping of bipolar disorders in referred children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2007;46:1299–1306. [PubMed] 110. Denicoff KD, Smith-Jackson EE, Disney ER, et al. Preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the prospective life-chart methodology (LCM-p) Journal of Psychiatric Research. 1997;31:593–603. [PubMed] 111. Shaffer D, Gould MS, Brasic J, et al. A children’s global assessment scale (CGAS) Archives of General Psychiatry. 1983;40:1228–1231. [PubMed]
112. National Institute of Mental Health Rating scales and assessment instruments for use in pediatric psychopharmacology research. Psychopharmacology Bulletin. 1985;21:839–843.
113. Young RC, Biggs JT, Ziegler VE, et al. A rating scale for mania: Reliability, validity, and sensitivity. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1978;133:429–435. [PubMed] 114. Poznanski EO, Miller E, Salguero C, et al. Preliminary studies of the reliability and validity of the Children’s Depression Rating Scale. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry. 1984;23:191–197. [PubMed] 115. Fristad MA, Weller EB, Weller RA. The mania rating scale: Can it be used in children? A preliminary report. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 1992;31:252–257. [PubMed] 116. Fristad MA, Weller RA, Weller EB. The mania rating scale (MRS): Further reliability and validity studies with children. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry. 1995;7:127–132. [PubMed] 117. Youngstrom EA, Danielson CK, Findling RL, et al. Factor structure of the Young Mania Rating Scale for use with youths ages 5 to 17 years. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. 2002;31:567–572. [PubMed] 118. Axelson DA, Birmaher BJ, Brent D, et al. A preliminary study of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children mania rating scale for children and adolescents. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2003;13:463–470. [PubMed] 119. Rademacher J, DelBello MP, Adler C, et al. Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder. Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2007;17:97–103. [PubMed] 120. Freeman A, Youngstrom EA, Michalak EE, et al. Quality of life in pediatric bipolar disorder. Pediatrics. in press. [PubMed]
121. Danielson CK, Feeny NC, Findling RL, et al. Psychosocial Treatment of Bipolar Disorders in Adolescents: A Proposed Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention. Cognitive & Behavioral Practice. 2004;11:283–297.
122. Newman CF, Leahy RL, Beck AT, et al. Bipolar disorder: A cognitive therapy approach. American Psychological Association; Washington, DC: 2002.
123. Wilens TE. Straight talk about psychiatric medications for kids. ed Revised Guilford Press; New York: 2004.
124. Streiner DL, Norman GR. Health Measurement Scales: A Practical Guide to their Development and Use. ed 2nd Oxford University Press; New York: 1995.
125. Venter A, Maxwell SE. Maximizing Power in Randomized Designs When N is Small. In: Hoyle RH, editor. Statistical Strategies for Small Sample Research. Sage Publications; Thousand Oaks, CA: 1999. pp. 31–58.
126. Kafantaris V. Treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 1995;34:732–741. [PubMed] 127. Kowatch RA, Sethuraman G, Hume JH, et al. Combination pharmacotherapy in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry. 2003;53:978–984. [PubMed] 128. Patel NC, Patrick DM, Youngstrom EA, et al. Response and remission in adolescent mania: Signal detection analyses of the Young Mania Rating Scale. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2007;46:628–635. [PubMed] 129. Frank E, Prien RF, Jarrett RB, et al. Conceptualization and rationale for consensus definitions of terms in major depressive disorder. Remission, recovery, relapse, and recurrence. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1991;48:851–855. [PubMed] 130. Jacobson NS, Truax P. Clinical significance: A statistical approach to defining meaningful change in psychotherapy research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1991;59:12–19. [PubMed]
131. Cooperberg MD. Characterizing clinical change in youths with bipolar disorders. Case Western Reserve University; United States -- Ohio: 2004.
132. Youngstrom EA, Cooperberg M, Findling RL, et al. Identifying the Most Sensitive Outcome Measure for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder. Annual meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; Miami Beach, FL.
133. Sachs GS. Strategies for improving treatment of bipolar disorder: integration of measurement and management. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2004;(Supplementum):7–17. [PubMed]
134. Jamison KR. An Unquiet Mind: A Memoir of Moods and Madness. Vintage Books; New York: 1995.
135. Hinshaw SP. Parental mental disorder and children’s functioning: silence and communication, stigma and resilience. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. 2004;33:400–411. [PubMed] 136. Miklowitz DJ, Biuckians A, Richards JA. Early-onset bipolar disorder: A family treatment perspective. Development and Psychopathology. 2006;18:1247–1265. [PubMed] 137. Joseph M, Frazier TW, Youngstrom EA, et al. A quantitative and qualitative review of neurocognitive performance in pediatric bipolar disorder. Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2008;18:595–605. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 138. Chang K, Adleman N, Wagner C, et al. Will neuroimaging ever be used to diagnose pediatric bipolar disorder? Development and Psychopathology. 2006;18:1133–1146. [PubMed]
139. DelBello MP, Kowatch RA. Neuroimaging in pediatric bipolar disorder. In: Geller B, DelBello MP, editors. Bipolar disorder in childhood and early adolescence. Guilford; New York: 2003. pp. 158–174.
140. WTCCC Genome-wide association study of 14,000 cases of seven common diseases and 3,000 shared controls. Nature. 2007;447:661–678. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 141. Braff DL, Freedman R. Clinically responsible genetic testing in neuropsychiatric patients: a bridge too far and too soon. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2008;165:952–955. [PubMed] 142. Pine DS, Cohen P, Gurley D, et al. The risk for early-adulthood anxiety and depressive disorders in adolescents with anxiety and depressive disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55:56–64. [PubMed] 143. Geller B, Craney JL, Bolhofner K, et al. Two-Year Prospective Follow-Up of Children With a Prepubertal and Early Adolescent Bipolar Disorder Phenotype. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2002;159:927–933. [PubMed]
144. Naylor MW, Anderson TR, Kruesi MJ, et al. Pharmacoepidemiology of bipolar disorder in abused and neglected state wards; Poster presented at the National Meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; San Francisco.
145. Biederman J, Faraone S, Mick E, et al. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and juvenile mania: an overlooked comorbidity? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 1996;35:997–1008. [PubMed] 146. Teplin LA, Abram KM, McClelland GM, et al. Psychiatric Disorders in Youth in Juvenile Detention. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2002;59:1133–1143. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 147. Pliszka SR, Sherman JO, Barrow MV, et al. Affective disorder in juvenile offenders: A preliminary study. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 2000;157:130–132. [PubMed] 148. Birmaher B, Ryan ND, Williamson DE, et al. Childhood and adolescent depression: a review of the past 10 years. Part I. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 1996;35:1427–1439. [PubMed] 149. Tillman R, Geller B, Klages T, et al. Psychotic phenomena in 257 young children and adolescents with bipolar I disorder: delusions and hallucinations (benign and pathological) Bipolar disorders. 2008;10:45–55. [PubMed]
150. Achenbach TM. Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 and 1991 profile. University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry; Burlington: 1991.
151. Achenbach TM. Manual for the Youth Self Report form and 1991 profile. University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry; Burlington: 1991.
152. Achenbach TM. Manual for the Teacher’s Report Form and 1991 profile. University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry; Burlington: 1991.
153. Gracious BL, Youngstrom EA, Findling RL, et al. Discriminative validity of a parent version of the Young Mania Rating Scale. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2002;41:1350–1359. [PubMed] 154. Hirschfeld RM, Williams JBW, Spitzer RL, et al. Development and validation of a screening instrument for bipolar spectrum disorder: The mood disorder questionnaire. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 2000;157:1873–1875. [PubMed] 155. Tillman R, Geller B. A brief screening tool for a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 2005;162:1214–1216. [PubMed]
156. Papolos DF, Papolos J. The bipolar child: The definitive and reassuring guide to childhood’s most misunderstood disorder. ed 2nd Broadway Books; New York: 2002.
157. Papolos DF, Hennen J, Cockerham MS, et al. The Child Bipolar Questionnaire: A dimensional approach to screening for pediatric bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2006;95:149–158. [PubMed]
158. Sackett DL, Straus SE, Richardson WS, et al. Evidence-based medicine: How to practice and teach EBM. Churchill Livingstone; New York: 1998.
159. Beck AT, Steer RA. Beck depression inventory manual. The Psychological Corporation; San Antonio, TX: 1987.