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Three-dimensional imaging of Arabidopsis leaves at different developmental stages using multiphoton microscopy. (a) Single optical sections in, from left to right, the adaxial epidermis, the palisade mesophyll, the spongy mesophyll and the abaxial epidermis, taken from an image stack of a young leaf (leaf 6, 8 days after initiation, top row) and a mature leaf (leaf 6, 19 days after initiation, bottom row) (scale bar of 50 μm for all images at bottom right). Cell division planes are indicated by arrows. (b) Orthogonal views (xz) of the same image stacks: young leaf (left) and mature leaf (right) (scale bar of 25 μm for both images). (c-f) Three-dimensional imaging of leaves before emergence: (c) meristem (m) and leaves 3-7 with stipules (s) (12 days after sowing, scale bar of 20 μm), (d) leaf 10 and floral bud (fb) (18 days after sowing, scale bar of 20 μm), (e) leaf 9 (20 days after sowing, scale bar of 10 μm), (f) leaf 8 (20 days after sowing, scale bar of 50 μm). (g) Vein development in a young leaf (leaf 6, 11 days after initiation, mv-midvein, lv-lateral vein, scale bar of 25 μm). (h) Leaf serration in a young leaf (leaf 6, 7 days after initiation, mc-marginal cells, scale bar of 20 μm). (i) Guard cell development in a young leaf (leaf 6, 11 days after initiation, gc-guard cell, gmc-guard mother cell, scale bar of 15 μm).