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Logo of bmcgenoBioMed Centralsearchsubmit a manuscriptregisterthis articleBMC Genomics
 
BMC Genomics. 2009; 10: 358.
Published online Aug 5, 2009. doi:  10.1186/1471-2164-10-358
PMCID: PMC2907686
Comparative genomic analyses of Streptococcus mutans provide insights into chromosomal shuffling and species-specific content
Fumito Maruyama,1,3 Mitsuhiko Kobata,2 Ken Kurokawa,3 Keishin Nishida,4 Atsuo Sakurai,2 Kazuhiko Nakano,2 Ryota Nomura,2 Shigetada Kawabata,5 Takashi Ooshima,2 Kenta Nakai,4 Masahira Hattori,6 Shigeyuki Hamada,7 and Ichiro Nakagawacorresponding author1,8
1Division of Bacteriology, Department of Infectious Diseases Control, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan
2Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
3Divison of Information Biotechnology, Department of Bioinformation Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology School and Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama Kanagawa 226-8501, Japan
4Human genome Center, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo
5Department of Oral and Molecular Microbiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan
6Department of Computational Biology, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561, Japan
7Research Collaboration Center on Emerging and Reemerging Infections (RCC-ERI) 6F, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Tiwanon Road, Muang Nonthaburi, 11000, Thailand
8Section of Bacterial Pathogenesis, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
Fumito Maruyama: fumito/at/bio.titech.ac.jp; Mitsuhiko Kobata: mhiko/at/mac.com; Ken Kurokawa: ken/at/bio.titech.ac.jp; Keishin Nishida: keishin/at/hgc.jp; Atsuo Sakurai: atsuo-s/at/ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Kazuhiko Nakano: nakano/at/dent.osaka-u.ac.jp; Ryota Nomura: rnomura/at/dent.osaka-u.ac.jp; Shigetada Kawabata: kawabata/at/dent.osaka-u.ac.jp; Takashi Ooshima: ooshima/at/dent.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kenta Nakai: knakai/at/hgc.jp; Masahira Hattori: hattori/at/k.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Shigeyuki Hamada: hamadas/at/biken.osaka-u.ac.jp; Ichiro Nakagawa: ichiro-n.bac/at/tmd.ac.jp
Received September 24, 2008; Accepted August 5, 2009.
Abstract
Background
Streptococcus mutans is the major pathogen of dental caries, and it occasionally causes infective endocarditis. While the pathogenicity of this species is distinct from other human pathogenic streptococci, the species-specific evolution of the genus Streptococcus and its genomic diversity are poorly understood.
Results
We have sequenced the complete genome of S. mutans serotype c strain NN2025, and compared it with the genome of UA159. The NN2025 genome is composed of 2,013,587 bp, and the two strains show highly conserved core-genome. However, comparison of the two S. mutans strains showed a large genomic inversion across the replication axis producing an X-shaped symmetrical DNA dot plot. This phenomenon was also observed between other streptococcal species, indicating that streptococcal genetic rearrangements across the replication axis play an important role in Streptococcus genetic shuffling. We further confirmed the genomic diversity among 95 clinical isolates using long-PCR analysis. Genomic diversity in S. mutans appears to occur frequently between insertion sequence (IS) elements and transposons, and these diversity regions consist of restriction/modification systems, antimicrobial peptide synthesis systems, and transporters. S. mutans may preferentially reject the phage infection by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). In particular, the CRISPR-2 region, which is highly divergent between strains, in NN2025 has long repeated spacer sequences corresponding to the streptococcal phage genome.
Conclusion
These observations suggest that S. mutans strains evolve through chromosomal shuffling and that phage infection is not needed for gene acquisition. In contrast, S. pyogenes tolerates phage infection for acquisition of virulence determinants for niche adaptation.
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