Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may affect 10% of women and 5% of men at some stage, and symptoms may persist for several years. Risk factors include major trauma, lack of social support, peritraumatic dissociation, and previous psychiatric history or personality factors.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent PTSD? What are the effects of interventions to treat PTSD? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
We found 46 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: affect management; antiepileptic drugs; antihypertensive drugs; benzodiazepines; brofaromine; CBT; drama therapy; eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing; fluoxetine; group therapy; hydrocortisone; hypnotherapy; inpatient treatment programmes; Internet-based psychotherapy; mirtazapine; multiple-session CBT; multiple-session collaborative trauma support; multiple-session education; nefazodone; olanzapine; paroxetine; phenelzine; psychodynamic psychotherapy; risperidone; SSRIs (versus other antidepressants); sertraline; single-session group debriefing; single-session individual debriefing; supportive psychotherapy; supportive counselling; temazepam; tricyclic antidepressants; and venlafaxine.