Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) are a somatic stem cell population contained in fat tissue that possess the ability for self-renewal, differentiation into one or more phenotypes and functional regeneration of damaged tissue, which will benefit the recovery of erectile function by using a stem cell based therapy.
To review available evidence concerning adipose derived stem cell availability, differentiation into functional cells, and the potential of these cells for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED).
We examined the current data associated with the definition and characterization of adipose derived stem cells, including the differentiation of these cells and the initial effects of adipose derived stem cell therapy in a rat model of erectile dysfunction.
Main Outcome Measures
There is strong evidence supporting the concept that ADSCs are a potential stem cell therapy source for treatment of erectile dysfunction.
The adipose derived stem cells are paravascularly localized in the adipose tissue. Under specific induction medium conditions, these cells differentiated into neuron-like cells, smooth muscle cells and endothelium in vitro. The insulin-like growth factor/insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF/IGFR) pathway participates in neuronal differentiation while the fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) pathway is involved in endothelium differentiation. In addition, the internal ribosomal entry sites (IRES) regulated gene translation is related to these types of differentiation. In a preliminary in-vivo experiment, the adipose derived stem cells functionally recovered the damaged erectile function. Therefore, the underlying mechanism needs be further examined.
The adipose derived stem cells are a potential source of stem cells for treatment of erectile dysfunction, which highlights the possibility of an effective clinical therapy for ED in the near future.
Keywords: Erectile Dysfunction, Stem Cells, Adipose Derived Stem Cell, Differentiation, FGF2