1. Johnston LD, O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse; 2006. NIH publication 06–5882.
2. Hawks D, Scott K, McBride N, Jones P, Stockwell T. Prevention of Psychoactive Substance Use: A Selected Review of What Works in the Area of Prevention. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002.
3. Hanson GR, Li T. Public health implications of excessive alcohol consumption. JAMA. 2003;289(8):1031–1032. [PubMed]
4. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Youth Drinking: Risk Factors and Consequences: Alcohol Alert 37. Washington, DC: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; 1997.
5. National Institute of Mental Health. Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 1999.
6. Office of the Surgeon General. Surgeon General’s Call to Action on Preventing Underage Drinking. Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General; 2006.
7. Hingson R, Kenkel D. National Research Council, Institute of Medicine. Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility: Background Papers [CD-ROM] Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2004. Social, health, and economic consequences of underage drinking.
8. Grunbaum JA, Kann L, Kindun SA, et al. Youth risk behavior surveillance: United States, 2001. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2002;51(4):1–62. [PubMed] 9. Hingson RW, Zakocs RC, Heeren T, Winter MR, Rosenbloom D, DeJong W. Effects on alcohol related fatal crashes of a community based initiative to increase substance abuse treatment and reduce alcohol availability. Inj Prev. 2005;11(2):84–90. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
10. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol, aggression, and injury. Alcohol Health Res World. 1993;17(2)
11. Dee TS. Alcohol abuse and economic conditions: evidence from repeated cross-sections of individual-level data. Health Econ. 2001;10(3):257–270. [PubMed] 12. Windle M. Temperament and social support in adolescence: interrelations with depressive symptoms and delinquent behaviors. J Youth Adolesc. 1992;21(1):1–21. [PubMed] 13. Windle M, Windle RC. Depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking among middle adolescents: prospective associations and intrapersonal and interpersonal influences. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2001;69(2):215–226. [PubMed] 14. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. SAMHSA model programs. [Accessed February 15, 2008]. Available at: www.nrepp.samhsa.gov. 15. Hingson R, Heeren T, Zakocs R, Kopstein A, Wechsler H. Magnitude of alcohol-related mortality and morbidity among US college students ages 18–24. J Stud Alcohol. 2002;63(2):136–144. [PubMed] 16. Spoth R, Shin C, Guyll M, Redmond C, Azevedo K. Universality of effects: an examination of the comparability of long-term family intervention effects on substance use across risk-related subgroups. Prev Sci. 2006;7(2):209–224. [PubMed] 17. Swartzwelder HS, Wilson WA, Tayyeb MI. Age-dependent inhibition of long-term potentiation by ethanol in immature versus mature hippocampus. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1995;19(6):1480–1485. [PubMed] 18. Foster SE, Vaughan RD, Foster WH, Califano JA. Alcohol consumption and expenditure for underage drinking and adult excessive drinking. JAMA. 2003;289(8):989–995. [PubMed]
19. Levy DT, Miller TR, Cox KC. Costs of Underage Drinking. Rockville, MD: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; 1999.
21. Tapert SF, Schweinsburg AD. The human adolescent brain and alcohol use disorders. In: Galanter M, editor. Alcohol Problems in Adolescents and Young Adults: Epidemiology, Neurobiology, Prevention, and Treatment. New York, NY: Springer Science; 2006. pp. 177–197.
22. Grant BF, Dawson DA. Age at onset of alcohol use and its association with DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence: results from the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. J Subst Abuse. 1997;9:103–110. [PubMed] 23. Greenberg MT. Current and future challenges in school-based prevention: the researcher perspective. Prev Sci. 2004;5(1):5–13. [PubMed] 24. Spoth RL, Greenberg MT. Toward a comprehensive strategy for effective practitioner-scientist partnerships and larger-scale community benefits. Am J Community Psychol. 2005;35(3/4):107–126. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
25. Blitz CC, Arthur MW, Hawkins JD. Preventing alcohol, tobacco, and other substance abuse. In: Jason LA, Glenwick DS, editors. Innovative Strategies for Promoting Health and Mental Health Across the Life Span. New York, NY: Springer; 2002. pp. 176–201.
26. Gottfredson DC, Wilson DB. Characteristics of effective school-based substance abuse prevention. Prev Sci. 2003;4(1):27–38. [PubMed] 27. Larimer ME, Cronce JM. Identification, prevention, and treatment revisited: individual-focused college drinking prevention. Addict Behav. 2002;32(11):2439–2468. [PubMed]
28. Lochman JE, van den Steenhoven A. Family-based approaches to substance abuse prevention. J Prim Prev. 2002;23(1):49–114.
29. Paglia A, Room R. Preventing substance use problems among youth: a literature review and recommendations. J Prim Prev. 1999;20(1):3–50.
30. Skara S, Sussman S. A review of 25 long-term adolescent tobacco and other drug use prevention program evaluations. Prev Med. 2003;37(5):451–474. [PubMed]
31. Tobler NS, Roona MR, Ochshorn P, Marshall DG, Streke AV, Stackpole KM. School-based adolescent drug prevention programs: 1998 meta-analysis. J Prim Prev. 2000;20(4):275–336.
32. Velleman RD, Templeton LJ, Copello AG. The role of the family in preventing and intervening with substance use and misuse: a comprehensive review of family interventions, with a focus on young people. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2005;24(2):93–109. [PubMed] 33. Elliott DS, editor. Blueprints for Violence Prevention, Vol 5: Life Skills Training. Boulder, CO: Center for the Study of Prevention and Violence, University of Colorado; 1998. [Accessed February 28, 2008]. Available at: www.colorado.edu/cspv/blueprints/model/programs/LST.html.
34. Wilson DB, Gottfredson DC, Najaka SS. School-based prevention of problem behaviors: a meta-analysis. J Quant Criminol. 2001;17(3):247–272.
35. Durlak JA, Wells AM. Primary prevention mental health programs: the future is exciting. Am J Community Psychol. 1997;25(2):233–243. [PubMed] 36. Greenberg MT, Domitrovich C, Bumbarger B. The prevention of mental disorders in school-aged children: current state of the field. [Accessed February 16, 2008]. Available at: http://prevention.psu.edu/pubs/doc/CMHS.pdf.
37. Catalano RF, Berglund ML, Ryan JAM, Lonczak HC, Hawkins JD. Positive Youth Development in the United States: Research Findings on Evaluations of Positive Youth Development Programs. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1998.
38. Foxcroft DR, Ireland D, Lister-Sharp DJ, Lowe G, Breen R. Longer-term primary prevention for alcohol misuse in young people: a systematic review. Addiction. 2003;94(4):397–411. [PubMed] 39. Komro KA, Toomey TL. Strategies to prevent underage drinking. Alcohol Res Health. 2002;26(1):5–14. [PubMed] 40. Elliott DS, Mihalic S. Issues in disseminating and replicating effective prevention programs. Prev Sci. 2004;5(1):47–53. [PubMed] 41. Barkham M, Margison F, Leach C, et al. Service profiling and outcomes benchmarking using the CORE-OM: toward practice-based evidence in the psychological therapies. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2001;68(2):184–196. [PubMed]
42. National Center for Education Statistics. Violence and Discipline Problems in US Public Schools: 1996–97. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 1998. NCES publication 98-030.
43. Federal Collaboration on What Works. Draft Report of the Working Group: The What Works Repository. Washington, DC: Office of Justice Programs; 2005.
44. Mrazek PJ, Haggerty RJ, editors. Reducing Risks for Mental Disorders: Frontiers for Preventive Intervention Research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1994.
45. Clark DB, Cornelius JR, Kirisci L, Tarter RE. Childhood risk categories for adolescent substance involvement: a general liability typology. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005;77(1):13–21. [PubMed] 46. Clark DB, Winters KC. Measuring risks and outcomes in substance use disorders prevention research. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2002;70(6):1207–1223. [PubMed] 47. Dobkin PL, Tremblay RE, Masse LC, Vitaro F. Individual and peer characteristics in predicting boys’ early onset of substance abuse: a seven-year longitudinal study. Child Dev. 1995;66(4):1198–1214. [PubMed] 48. Kaplow JB, Curran PJ, Dodge KA. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. Child, parent, and peer predictors of early-onset substance use: a multi-site longitudinal study. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2002;30(3):199–216. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 49. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. Evaluation of the first three years of the Fast Track Prevention Trial with children at high risk for adolescent conduct problems. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2002;30(1):19–35. [PubMed]
50. Zucker RA, Ellis DA, Bingham CR, Fitzgerald HE. The development of alcoholic subtypes: risk variation among alcoholic families during early childhood. Alcohol Health Res World. 1996;20(1):46–54.
51. Catalano RF, Berglund ML, Ryan JAM, Lonczak HS, Hawkins JD. Positive youth development in the United States: research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs. Prev Treat. 2002. [Accessed February 28, 2008]. Available at: http://content.apa.org/journals/pre/5/1.
52. Weissberg RP, Greenberg MT. Community and school prevention. In: Siegel I, Renninger A, editors. Handbook of Child Psychology, Vol. 4: Child Psychology in Practice. 5. New York, NY: Wiley; 1998. pp. 877–954.
53. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. NREPP Overview. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2006. [Accessed February 12, 2008]. Available at: www.nrepp.samhsa.gov/review-criteria.htm. 54. Yu J, Shacket RW. Long-term change in underage drinking and impaired driving after the establishment of drinking age laws in New York State. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1998;22(7):1443–1449. [PubMed] 55. Hingson RW, Scotch N, Mangoine T, et al. Impact of legislation raising the legal drinking age in Massachusetts from 18 to 20. Am J Public Health. 1983;73(2):163–170. [PubMed]
56. Dee TS. State alcohol policies, teen drinking and traffic fatalities. J Public Econ. 1999;72(2):289–315.
57. Engs RC, Hanson DJ. University students’ drinking patterns and problems: examining the effects of raising the purchase age. Public Health Rep. 1988;103(6):667–673. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 58. O’Malley PM, Wagenaar AC. Effects of minimum drinking age laws on alcohol use, related behaviors and traffic crash involvement among American youth: 1976–1987. J Stud Alcohol. 1991;52(5):478–491. [PubMed] 59. Holder HD, Wagenaar A. Mandated server training and reduced alcohol-involved traffic crashes: a time series analysis of the Oregon experience. Accid Anal Prev. 1994;26(1):89–97. [PubMed]
60. Chaloupka FJ, Wechsler H. Binge drinking in college: the impact of price, availability, and alcohol control policies. Contemp Econ Policy. 1996;14(4):112–124.
61. Hingson RW, Heeren T, Winter MR. Lower blood alcohol limits for young drivers. Public Health Rep. 1994;109(6):738–744. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 62. Hingson RW, Heeren T, Winter MR. Lowering state legal blood alcohol limits to 0.08%: the effect on fatal motor vehicle crashes. Am J Public Health. 1996;86(9):1297–1299. [PubMed] 63. Offord DR, Kraemer HC, Kazdin AE, Jensen PS, Harrington R. Lowering the burden of suffering from child psychiatric disorder: trade-offs among clinical, targeted, and universal interventions. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1998;37(7):686–694. [PubMed] 64. Kellam SG, Langevin DJ. A framework for understanding “evidence” in prevention research and programs. Prev Sci. 2003;4(3):137–153. [PubMed] 65. Turrisi R, Jaccard J, Taki R, Dunnam H, Grimes J. Examination of the short-term efficacy of a parent-based intervention to reduce college student drinking tendencies. Psychol Addict Behav. 2001;15(4):366–372. [PubMed] 66. Sussman S, Dent CW, Stacy AW. Project Towards No Drug Abuse: a review of the findings and future directions. Am J Health Behav. 2002;26(5):354–364. [PubMed] 67. Goldberg L, MacKinnon DP, Elliot DL, Esther LM, Clark G, Cheong J. The Adolescent Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids program. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154(4):332–338. [PubMed] 68. Spoth RL, Redmond C, Trudeau L, Shin C. Longitudinal substance initiation outcomes for a universal preventive intervention combining family and school programs. Psychol Addict Behav. 2002;16(2):129–134. [PubMed] 69. Stigler MH, Perry CL, Komro KA, Cudeck R, Williams CL. Teasing apart a multiple component approach to adolescent alcohol prevention: what worked in Project Northland? Prev Sci. 2006;7(3):269–280. [PubMed] 70. Holder HD, Gruenewald PJ, Ponicki WR, et al. Effect of community-based interventions on high-risk drinking and alcohol-related injuries. JAMA. 2000;284(18):2341–2347. [PubMed]
71. Wagenaar AC, Gehan JP, Jones-Webb R, et al. Communities Mobilizing for Change on Alcohol: lessons and results from a 15-community randomized trial. J Community Psychol. 1999;27(3):315–326.
72. Evans DL, Foa EB, Guy RE, et al. Treating and Preventing Adolescent Mental Health Disorders: What We Know and What We Don’t Know. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2005.
73. Pentz MA, Dwyer JH, MacKinnon DP, et al. A multi-community trial for primary prevention of adolescent drug abuse: effects on drug use prevalence. JAMA. 1989;261(22):3259–3266. [PubMed]
74. Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth. Underage Drinking in the United States: A Status Report, 2005. Washington, DC: Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth; 2006.
75. Christenson PG, Henriksen L, Roberts DF. Substance Use in Popular Prime Time Television. Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy; 2000.
76. Grube JW, Wallack L. Television beer advertising and drinking knowledge, beliefs, and intentions among schoolchildren. Am J Public Health. 1994;84(2):254–259. [PubMed] 77. Decker MD, Graitcer PL, Schaffner W. Reduction in motor vehicle fatalities associated with an increase in the minimum drinking age. JAMA. 1988;260(24):3604–3610. [PubMed]
78. Perkins HW, Berkowitz A. Stability and contradiction in college students’ drinking following a drinking age law change. J Alcohol Drug Educ. 1989;35(1):60–77.
79. Gonzalez GM. Effects of raising the drinking age among college students in Florida. Coll Stud J. 1989;23(1):67–75.
80. Vingilis E, Smart RG. Effects of raising the legal drinking age in Ontario. Br J Addict. 1981;76(4):415–424. [PubMed] 81. Ruhm CJ. Alcohol policies and highway vehicle fatalities. J Health Econ. 1996;15(4):435–454. [PubMed] 82. Smith RA, Hingson RW, Morelock S, et al. Legislation raising the legal drinking age in Massachusetts from 18 to 20: effect on 16 and 17 year-olds. J Stud Alcohol. 1984;45(6):534–539. [PubMed] 83. Wagenaar AC, Toomey TL. Effects of minimum drinking age laws: review and analyses of the literature from 1960 to 2000. J Stud Alcohol Suppl. 2002;(14):206–225. [PubMed] 84. Shultz RA, Elder RW, Sleet DA, et al. Reviews of evidence regarding interventions to reduce alcohol-impaired driving. Am J Prev Med. 2001;21(4 suppl):66–88. [PubMed] 85. Hawkins JD, Graham JW, Maguin E, Abbott R, Hill KG, Catalano RF. Exploring the effects of age of alcohol use initiation and psychosocial risk factors on subsequent alcohol misuse. J Stud Alcohol. 1997;58(3):280–290. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 86. Oxford ML, Harachi TW, Catalano RF, Abbott RD. Preadolescent predictors of substance initiation: a test of both the direct and mediated effect of family social control factors on deviant peer associations and substance initiation. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2001;27(4):599–616. [PubMed] 87. O’Malley PM, Johnston LD. Epidemiology of alcohol and other drug use among college students. J Stud Alcohol Suppl. 2002;(14):23–39. [PubMed]
88. Dishion TJ, Kavanagh K. Intervening in Adolescent Problem Behavior: A Family-Centered Approach. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2003.
89. Sanders MR, Markie-Dadds C, Tully L, Bor W. The Triple P Positive Parenting Program: a comparison of enhanced, standard, and self-directed behavioral family intervention for parents of children with early onset conduct problems. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000;68(4):624–640. [PubMed] 90. Kumpfer KL, Alvarado R, Smith P, Bellamy N. Cultural sensitivity and adaptation in family-based prevention interventions. Prev Sci. 2002;3(3):241–246. [PubMed]
91. Azevedo K, Redmond C, Lillehoj C, Spoth RL. Contradictions across in-school and in-home reports of adolescent substance use initiation. Presented at the Society for Prevention Research 11th Annual Meeting; June 11–13, 2003; Washington, DC.
92. Flay BR, Biglan A, Boruch RF, et al. Standards of evidence: criteria for efficacy, effectiveness and dissemination. Prev Sci. 2005;6(3):151–175. [PubMed] 93. St Pierre TL, Osgood DW, Mincemoyer CC, Kaltreider DL, Kauh TJ. Results of an independent evaluation of Project ALERT delivered in schools by cooperative extension. Prev Sci. 2005;6(4):305–317. [PubMed]
94. Hawkins JD. When is replication, replication? The Seattle Social Development Project and the Raising Healthy Children Project. Presented at the Society for Prevention Research-Cornell University Medical Center Institute for Prevention Research conference; April 19–21, 2004; Snowbird, UT.
95. Pentz MA, Trebow EA, Hansen WB, et al. Effects of program implementation on adolescent drug use behavior: the Mid-western Prevention Project (MPP) Eval Rev. 1990;14(3):264–289.
96. Collins LM, Murphy SA, Nair V, Strecher V. A strategy for optimizing and evaluating behavioral interventions. Ann Behav Med. 2005;30(1):65–73. [PubMed] 97. Komro KA, Perry CL, Williams MH, Stigler K, Farbakhsh K, Veblen-Mortenson S. How did Project Northland reduce alcohol use among young adolescents? Analysis of mediating variables. Health Educ Res. 2001;16(1):59–70. [PubMed] 98. Spoth R, Guyll M, Day SX. Universal family-focused interventions in alcohol-use disorder prevention: cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses of two interventions. J Stud Alcohol. 2002;63(2):219–228. [PubMed]
99. Aos S, Lieb R, Mayfield M, Miller M, Pennucci A. Benefits and costs of prevention and early intervention programs for youth, technical appendix. Olympia, WA: Washington State Institute for Public Policy; 2004.
100. Brown CH, Liao J. Principles for designing randomized preventive trials in mental health: an emerging developmental epidemiology paradigm. Am J Community Psychol. 1999;27(5):673–710. [PubMed] 101. Dawson-McClure SR, Sandler IN, Wolchik SA, Millsap RE. Risk as a moderator of the effects of prevention programs for children from divorced families: a six-year longitudinal study. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2004;32(2):175–190. [PubMed]
102. Kellam SG, Rebok GW. Building developmental and etiological theory through epidemiologically based preventive intervention trials. In: McCord J, Tremblay RE, editors. Preventing Antisocial Behavior: Interventions From Birth Through Adolescence. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 1992. pp. 162–195.
103. Grube JW. Preventing sales of alcohol to minors: results from a community trial. Addiction. 1997;92(suppl 2):S251–S260. [PubMed] 104. Lohr KN. Rating the strength of scientific evidence: relevance for quality improvement programs. Int J Qual Health Care. 2004;16(1):9–18. [PubMed] 105. Mihalic S. Matrix of Programs as Identified by Various Federal and Private Agencies. Boulder, CO: Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, University of Colorado; 2002–2004. [Accessed February 13, 2008]. Available at: www.colorado.edu/cspv/blueprints/matrix/matrix.pdf. 106. Abrams DB. Transdisciplinary paradigms for tobacco prevention research. Nicotine Tob Res. 1999;1(suppl 1):S15–S23. [PubMed]
107. Society for Prevention Research. Standards of Evidence: Criteria for Efficacy, Effectiveness and Dissemination. Falls Church, VA: Society for Prevention Research; 2004.
108. Ennett ST, Ringwalt CL, Thorne J, et al. A comparison of current practice in school-based substance use prevention programs with meta-analysis findings. Prev Sci. 2003;4(1):1–14. [PubMed]
109. Gottfredson DC, Najaka SS. Youth Strategies Consolidated Grant: Evaluation Report for First Funding Cycle. College Park, MD: Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Maryland; 2003.
110. Hallfors D, Cho H, Livert D, Kadushin C. Fighting back against substance abuse: are community coalitions winning? Am J Prev Med. 2002;23(4):237–245. [PubMed]
111. Fixsen DL, Naoom SF, Blase KA, Friedman RM, Wallace F. Implementation Research: A Synthesis of the Literature. Tampa, FL: Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute; 2005. FMHI publication 231.
112. Spoth R, Randall GK, Shin C. Experimental support for a model of partnership-based family intervention effects on long-term academic success. School Psychol Q. 2007;22(3):1–30.
113. Spoth R. Translation of family-focused prevention science into practice: plotting a course for a public health impact paradigm. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. In press.
114. Dearing JW. Improving the state of health programming by using diffusion theory. J Health Commun. 2004;9(1):21–36. [PubMed]
115. Adelman HS, Taylor L. On sustainability of project innovations as systemic change. J Educ Psychol Consult. 2003;14(1):1–25.
116. Spoth R, Guyll M, Lillehoj CJ, Redmond C, Greenberg M. PROSPER study of evidence-based intervention implementation quality by community-university partnerships. J Community Psychol. 2007;35(8):981–999. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
117. Scheirer MA. Is sustainability possible? A review and commentary on empirical studies of program sustainability. Am J Eval. 2005;26(3):320–347.
118. Green LW. From research to “best practices” in other settings and populations. Am J Health Behav. 2001;25(3):165–178. [PubMed] 119. Greenberg MT, Weissberg RP, O’Brien MU, et al. Enhancing school-based prevention and youth development through coordinated social, emotional, and academic learning. Am Psychol. 2003;58(6–7):466–474. [PubMed] 120. Rotheram-Borus MJ, Duan N. Next generation of preventive interventions. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2003;42(5):518–530. [PubMed] 121. Sandler I, Ostrom A, Bitner MJ, Ayers TS, Wolchik S, Daniels VS. Developing effective prevention services for the real world: a prevention service development model. Am J Community Psychol. 2005;35(3–4):127–142. [PubMed]
122. Herzlinger RE. Consumer-Driven Health Care: Implications for Providers, Payers, and Policy-Makers. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2004.
123. Glasgow RE, Klesges LM, Dzewaltowski DA, Bull SS, Estabrooks P. The future of health behavior change research: what is needed to improve translation of research into health promotion practice. Ann Behav Med. 2004;27(1):3–12. [PubMed] 124. Spoth R, Greenberg M, Bierman K, Redmond C. PROSPER community-university partnership model for public education systems: capacity-building for evidence-based, competence-building prevention. Prev Sci. 2004;5(1):31–39. [PubMed] 125. Sussman S, Valente TW, Rohrbach LA, Skara S, Pentz MA. Translation in the health professions: converting science into action. Eval Health Prof. 2006;29(1):7–32. [PubMed] 126. Biglan A, Mrazek PJ, Carnine D, Flay BR. The integration of research and practice in the prevention of youth problem behaviors. Am Psychol. 2003;58(6–7):433–440. [PubMed] 127. Coie JD, Watt NF, West SG, et al. The science of prevention: a conceptual framework and some directions for a national research program. Am Psychol. 1993;48(10):1013–1022. [PubMed] 128. Brown EC, Catalano RF, Fleming CB, Haggerty KH, Abbott RD. Adolescent substance use outcomes in the Raising Healthy Children Project: a two-part latent growth curve analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2005;73(4):699–710. [PubMed] 129. Hawkins JD, Von Cleve E, Catalano RF. Reducing early childhood aggression: results of a primary prevention project. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1991;30(2):208–217. [PubMed]
130. Eddy MJ, Reid JR, Fetrow RA. An elementary school-based prevention program targeting modifiable antecedents of youth delinquency and violence: Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers (LIFT) J Emot Behav Disord. 2000;8(3):165–176.
131. Eddy MJ, Reid JR, Stoolmiller M, Fetrow RA. Outcomes during middle school for an elementary school-based preventive intervention for conduct problems: follow-up results from a randomized trial. Behav Ther. 2003;34(4):535–552.
132. Catalano RF, Mazza JJ, Harachi TW, Abbott RD, Haggerty KH, Fleming CB. Raising healthy children through enhancing social development in elementary school: results after 1.5 years. J Sch Psychol. 2003;41(2):143–164.
133. Hawkins JD, Catalano RF, Morrison DM, O’Donnell J, Abbott RD, Day LE. The Seattle Social Development Project: effects of the first four years on protective factors and problem behaviors. In: McCord J, Tremblay RE, editors. Preventing Antisocial Behavior: Interventions From Birth Through Adolescence. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 1992. pp. 139–161.
134. Olds D, Henderson CR, Cole R, et al. Long-term effects of nurse home visitation on children’s criminal and antisocial behavior: 15-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1998;280(14):1238–1244. [PubMed]
135. Tremblay RE, Masse L, Pagani L, Vitaro F. From childhood physical aggression to adolescent maladjustment: the Montreal Prevention Experiment. In: Peters RD, McMahon RJ, editors. Preventing Childhood Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Delinquency. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 1996. pp. 268–298.
136. Ialongo NS, Podska J, Werthamer L, Kellam S. The distal impact of two first-grade preventive interventions on conduct problems and disorder in early adolescence. J Emot Behav Disord. 2001;9(3):146–160.
137. Furr-Holden CD, Ialongo NS, Anthony JC, Petras H, Kellam SG. Developmentally inspired drug prevention: middle school outcomes in a school-based randomized trial. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2004;73(2):149–158. [PubMed]
138. Kratchowill TR, McDonald L, Levin JR, Young Bear-Tibbetts H, Demaray MK. Families and Schools Together: an experimental analysis of a parent-mediated multi-family group program for American Indian children. J Sch Psychol. 2004;42(5):359–383.
139. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. Initial impact of the Fast Track prevention trial for conduct problems, part I: the high-risk sample. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1999;67(5):631–647. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 140. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. The effects of the Fast Track Program on serious problem outcomes at the end of elementary school. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2004;33(4):650–661. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
141. Walker HM, Forness SR, Kauffman JM, et al. Macro-social validation: referencing outcomes in behavioral disorders to societal issues and problems. Behav Disord. 1998;24(1):7–18.
142. Kellam SG, Rebok GW, Ialongo N, Mayer LS. The course and malleability of aggressive behavior from early first grade into middle school: results of a developmental epidemiologically-based prevention trial. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1994;35(2):259–281. [PubMed] 143. Kellam SG, Ling X, Mersica R, Brown HC, Ialongo N. The effect of level of aggression in the first grade classroom on the course and malleability of aggressive behavior in middle school. Dev Psychopathol. 1998;10(2):165–185. [PubMed] 144. Shure MB. Interpersonal problem solving in young children: a cognitive approach to prevention. Am J Community Psychol. 1982;10(3):341–356. [PubMed]
145. Olweus D. Bully/victim problems among schoolchildren: basic facts and effects of a school-based intervention program. In: Pepler DJ, Rubin KH, editors. The Development and Treatment of Childhood Aggression. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1991. pp. 411–448.
146. Olweus D, Limber SP, Mihalic S. Blueprints for Violence Prevention, Vol. 10: The Bullying Prevention Program. Boulder, CO: Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence; 1999.
147. Smith EA, Swisher JD, Vicary JR, et al. Evaluation of Life Skills Training and Infused-Life Skills Training in a rural setting: outcomes at two years. J Alcohol Drug Educ. 2004;48(1):51–70.
148. Schweinhart LJ, Weikart DP. Young Children Grow Up: The Effects of the Perry Preschool Program on Youths Through Age 15. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press; 1980.
149. Schweinhart LJ, Barnes HV, Weikart DP. Significant Benefits: The High/Scope Perry Preschool Study Through Age 27. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press; 1993.
150. Kam C, Greenberg MT, Kusché CA. Sustained effects of the PATHS curriculum on the social and psychological adjustment of children in special education. J Emot Behav Disord. 2004;12(2):66–78.
151. Riggs NR, Greenberg MT, Kusche CA, Pentz MA. The mediational role of neurocognition in the behavioral outcomes of a social-emotional prevention program in elementary school students: effects of the PATHS curriculum. Prev Sci. 2006;7(1):91–102. [PubMed] 152. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. Initial impact of the Fast Track prevention trial for conduct problems, part II: classroom effects. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1999;67(5):648–657. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 153. Tolan PH, Dodge KA. Children’s mental health as a primary care and concern: a system for comprehensive support and service. Am Psychol. 2005;60(6):601–614. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 154. Grossman DC, Neckerman HJ, Koepsell TD, et al. Effectiveness of a violence prevention curriculum among children in elementary school. JAMA. 1997;277(20):1605–1611. [PubMed] 155. Reid MJ, Webster-Stratton C, Beauchaine TP. Parent training in Head Start: a comparison of program response among African American, Asian American, Caucasian, and Hispanic mothers. Prev Sci. 2002;2(4):209–227. [PubMed] 156. Webster-Stratton C, Taylor T. Nipping early risk factors in the bud: preventing substance abuse, delinquency, and violence in adolescence: interventions targeted at young children (ages 0–8 years) Prev Sci. 2001;2(3):165–192. [PubMed] 157. Gross D, Fogg L, Webster-Stratton C, Garvey C, Julion W, Grady J. Parent training with multiethnic families of toddlers in day care in low-income urban communities. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2003;71(2):261–278. [PubMed]
158. Heinrichs N, Hahlweg K, Bertram H, Kuschel A, Naumann S, Harstick S. The long-term efficacy of a parent training for the universal prevention of children’s behavioral disorders: results from the mothers and fathers [in German] Z Klin Psychol Psychother. 2006;35:82–96.
159. Hecht ML, Marsiglia FF, Elek E, et al. Culturally grounded substance use prevention: an evaluation of the Keepin’ it R.E.A.L. curriculum. Prev Sci. 2003;4(4):233–248. [PubMed]
160. Pentz MA, Valente T. Project STAR: a substance abuse prevention campaign in Kansas City. In: Backer TE, Rogers EM, editors. Successful Health Communications Campaigns: Organizational Dimensions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 1995. pp. 37–60.
161. Chou C, Montgomery S, Pentz MA, et al. Effects of a community-based prevention program in decreasing drug use in high-risk adolescents. Am J Public Health. 1998;88(6):944–948. [PubMed] 162. Perry CL, Williams CL, Veblen-Mortenson S, et al. Project Northland: outcomes of a communitywide alcohol use prevention program during early adolescence. Am J Public Health. 1996;86(7):956–965. [PubMed] 163. Klepp K, Kelder SH, Perry CL. Alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents: long-term outcomes of the Class of 1989 Study. Soc Behav Med. 1995;17(1):19–24. [PubMed] 164. Perry CL, Williams CL, Komro KA, et al. Project Northland: long-term outcomes of community action to reduce adolescent alcohol use. Health Educ Res. 2002;17(1):117–132. [PubMed] 165. Spoth R, Redmond C, Shin C. Randomized trial of brief family interventions for general populations: adolescent substance use outcomes four years following baseline. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2001;69(4):627–642. [PubMed] 166. Spoth R, Redmond C, Shin C, Azevedo K. Brief family intervention effects on adolescent substance initiation: school-level curvilinear growth curve analyses six years following baseline. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004;72(3):535–542. [PubMed] 167. Spoth R, Randall GK, Shin C, Redmond C. Randomized study of combined universal family and school preventive interventions: patterns of long-term effects on initiation, regular use, and weekly drunkenness. Psychol Addict Behav. 2005;19(4):372–381. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 168. Schinke SP, Tepavac L, Cole KC. Preventing substance use among Native American youth: three-year results. Addict Behav. 2000;25(3):387–397. [PubMed] 169. Bauman KE, Ennett ST, Foshee VA, Pemberton M, King TS, Koch GG. Influence of a family-directed program on adolescent cigarette and alcohol cessation. Prev Sci. 2000;1(4):227–237. [PubMed] 170. Bauman KE, Ennett ST, Foshee VA, Pemberton M, King TS, Koch GG. Influence of a family program on adolescent smoking and drinking prevalence. Prev Sci. 2002;3(1):35–42. [PubMed] 171. Bauman KE, Foshee VA, Ennett ST, et al. The influence of a family program on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Am J Public Health. 2001;91(4):604–610. [PubMed] 172. Ennett ST, Bauman KE, Pemberton M, et al. Mediation in a family-directed program for prevention of adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Prev Med. 2001;33(4):333–346. [PubMed] 173. Park J, Kosterman R, Hawkins JD, et al. Effects of the “Preparing for the Drug Free Years” curriculum on growth in alcohol use and risk for alcohol use in early adolescence. Prev Sci. 2000;1(3):125–138. [PubMed] 174. Cuijpers P, Jonkers R, de Weerdt I, de Jong A. The effects of drug abuse prevention at school: the “Healthy School and Drugs” project. Addiction. 2002;97(1):67–73. [PubMed] 175. Botvin GJ, Baker E, Dusenbury L, Botvin EM, Diaz T. Long-term follow-up results of a randomized drug abuse prevention trial in a white middle-class population. JAMA. 1995;273(14):1106–1112. [PubMed] 176. Griffin KW, Botvin GJ, Nichols TR, Doyle MM. Effectiveness of a universal drug abuse prevention approach for youth at high risk for substance use initiation. Prev Med. 2003;36(1):1–7. [PubMed] 177. Wolchik SA, Sandler IN, Millsap RE, et al. Six-year follow-up of preventive interventions for children of divorce. JAMA. 2002;288(15):1874–1881. [PubMed] 178. Ellickson PL, McCaffrey DF, Ghosh-Dastidar B, Longshore DL. New inroads in preventing adolescent drug use: results from a large-scale trial of Project ALERT in middle schools. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(11):1830–1836. [PubMed] 179. Ellickson PL, Bell PL. Drug prevention in junior high: a multi-site longitudinal test. Science. 1990;247(4948):1299–1305. [PubMed] 180. McBride N, Farringdon F, Midford R, Meuleners L, Phillips M. Harm minimization in school drug education: final results of the School Health and Alcohol Harm Reduction Project (SHAHRP) Addiction. 2004;99(3):278–291. [PubMed] 181. McBride N, Midford R, Farringdon F, Phillips M. Early results from a school alcohol harm minimization study: the School Health and Alcohol Harm Reduction Project. Addiction. 2000;95(7):1021–1042. [PubMed] 182. Schinke SP, Schwinn TM, Di Noia J, Cole KC. Reducing the risks of alcohol abuse among urban youth: 3-year effects of computer-based and parent involvement interventions. J Stud Alcohol. 2004;65(4):443–449. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
183. Snow DL, Swan SC, Wilton L. A workplace coping-skills intervention to prevent alcohol abuse. In: Bennett JB, Lehman WEK, editors. Workplace Substance Abuse Prevention: Beyond Drug Testing to Wellness. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2002. pp. 57–96.
184. Wells-Parker E, Williams M. Enhancing the effectiveness of traditional interventions with drinking drivers by adding brief individual intervention components. J Stud Alcohol. 2002;63(6):655–664. [PubMed] 185. Longabaugh R, Woodlard RF, Nirenberg TD, et al. Evaluating the effects of a brief motivational intervention for injured drinkers in the emergency department. J Stud Alcohol. 2001;62(6):806–816. [PubMed] 186. Anderson BK, Larimer ME. Problem drinking and the workplace: an individualized approach to prevention. Psychol Addict Behav. 2002;16(3):243–251. [PubMed]
187. Figlio DN. The effect of drinking age laws and alcohol-related crashes: time-series evidence from Wisconsin. J Policy Anal Manage. 1995;14(4):555–566.
188. Asch P, Levy DT. Young driver fatalities: the roles of drinking age and drinking experience. South Econ J. 1990;57(2):512–520.
189. Lillis RP, Williams TP, Williford WR. The impact of the 19-year-old drinking age in New York. In: Holder HD, editor. Advances in Substance Abuse: Behavioral and Biological Research, Supplement 1: Control Issues in Alcohol Abuse Prevention: Strategies for States and Communities. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press; 1987. pp. 133–146.
190. Wilkinson JT. Reducing drunken driving: which policies are most effective? South Econ J. 1987;54(2):322–334.
191. Wagenaar AC. Preventing highway crashes by raising the legal minimum age for drinking: the Michigan experience 6 years later. J Safety Res. 1986;17(3):101–109.
192. Williams TP, Lillis RP. Changes in alcohol consumption by 18-year-olds following an increase in New York State’s purchase age to 19. J Stud Alcohol. 1986;47(4):290–296. [PubMed] 193. MacKinnon DP, Woodward JA. The impact of raising the minimum drinking age on driver fatalities. Int J Addict. 1986;21(12):1331–1338. [PubMed]