Magnetic nanomaterial has shown an increasing number of applications in different fields of information, mechanics, and biomedicine due to their multifunctional properties such as small size effect, superparamagnetism, inherently biocompatibility, etc. [1
]. Especially in the last decade, the field of biomedicine witnessed an explosion of interest in the use of magnetic nanomaterial in earlier diagnosis and effective treatment of some diseases, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) [5
], drug delivery [7
], hyperthermia, etc. [12
]. In MRI, magnetic nanoparticles serve as contrast enhancement agents, in drug delivery, they function as drug carriers delivering and releasing the drug into target cells, while in hyperthermia, they serve as generator of heat under alternating current magnetic field. In certain cases, the employment based on magnetic nanomaterial has displayed significant advantages over conventional material with regard to assay sensitivity, effect of treatment, side effect, etc.
In biological applications, the current magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) of iron oxide (Fe3
) may be modest and biocompatible [14
], but some questions have been raised about the potential impact of these nanoparticles on the environment and human health. Numerous investigations have been carried out using iron oxides nanoparticles linked to their high mobility and specific reactivity with cells. Some results indicate that iron oxide nanoparticles could be internalized by cells and induce a dramatic decrease in the metabolic activity and proliferation of human cells (MSTO-211H) [16
]. A quantifiable model cell system shows that intracellular delivery of even moderate levels of iron oxide (Fe2
) nanoparticles may adversely affect cell function. More specifically, the cytotoxicity studies show that exposure to increasing concentrations of anionic MNPs, from 0.15 to 15 mM of iron, results in a dose-dependent diminishing viability and capacity of PC12 cells to extend neurites in response to nerve growth factor [21
Recently, the cytotoxicity assessment about iron oxide nanoparticles has been focused on by more and more researchers. Nevertheless, as mentioned by Auffan et al. [16
], toxicological data are difficult to compare since the parameters controlled in each of these studies may differ. These parameters involve size distribution, surface properties, magnetic properties, stability in biological media, etc. In this present study, the aim is to elucidate the effect of different iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (γ-Fe2
, MNPs) on Sprague-Dawley rat smooth muscle cell (SMC) in vitro. In particularly, MNPs were coated by meso-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), 3-amino-propyltriethoxysilane (APTS), and l
-glutamic acid (GLU), respectively, but possess the same size distribution and magnetic properties and stability, which can ensure the consistence and comparability of investigation results.