Author affiliations: Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (Mark P. Purdue, D. Michal Freedman, Nathaniel Rothman, Demetrius Albanes, Stephanie J. Weinstein, Kai Yu, Patricia Hartge); Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia (Susan M. Gapstur, Victoria L. Stevens); Department of Epidemiology, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland (Kathy J. Helzlsouer, Judith Hoffman-Bolton); The Prevention and Research Center, The Weinberg Center for Women's Health and Medicine, Mercy Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (Kathy J. Helzlsouer); Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (Francine Laden, Walter Willett); Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (Francine Laden); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (Francine Laden, Kimberly Bertrand, Edward L. Giovannucci, Walter Willett); Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (Edward L. Giovannucci, Walter Willett); Cancer Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii (Unhee Lim, Gertraud Maskarinec, Laurence N. Kolonel); Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (Xiao-Ou Shu, Wei Zheng); Department of Environmental Medicine and Cancer Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Alan A. Arlsan, Richard B. Hayes); Information Management Services, Inc., Silver Spring, Maryland (Lonn Irish, Kirk Snyder); Heartland Assays, Inc., Ames, Iowa (Ronald L. Horst); and Shanghai Cancer Institute, Shanghai, China (Yong-Bing Xiang).
This work was supported by the Extramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute (NCI) (Bethesda, Maryland) and the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NCI. The New York University Women's Health Study was supported by the NCI (grant R01 CA098661). The Health Professionals Follow-up Study and the Nurses’ Health Study were supported by the NCI (grants P01 CA055075, P01 CA87969, R01 CA49449, and R01 CA082838). The Multiethnic Cohort Study was supported by the NCI (grants R37 CA54281, P01 CA33619, R01 CA063464, and N01-PC35137). The Shanghai Men's Health Study was supported by the NCI (grant R01 CA82729). The Shanghai Women's Health Study was supported by the NCI (grants R37 CA70867 and N02-CP-11010-66). The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial was supported by contracts from the NCI to the University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado (grant N01-CN-25514); Georgetown University, Washington, DC (grant N01-CN-25522); the Pacific Health Research Institute (grant N01-CN-25515); the Henry Ford Health System (grant N01-CN-25512); the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (grant N01-CN-25513); Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (grant NO1-CN-25516); the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (grant N01-CN-25511); the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (grant N01-CN-25524); the Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, Marshfield, Wisconsin (grant N01-CN-25518); the University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama (grant NO1-CN-75022); Westat, Inc., Rockville, Maryland (grant N01-CN-25476); and the University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (grant NO1-CN-25404). The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study was supported by funding provided by the Intramural Research Program of the NCI and US Public Health Service contracts (N01-CN-45165, N01-RC-45035, N01-RC-37004). CLUE was supported by the National Institute on Aging (grant U01 AG018033) and the NCI (grants R01 CA105069, K07 CA73790). The participation of CLUE investigators was also supported by an NCI contract awarded to Mercy Medical Center through the University of Hawaii (Honolulu, Hawaii). The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort was supported by the American Cancer Society (Atlanta, Georgia).
The authors thank Dr. Karen Phinney of the National Institute of Standards and Technology for providing the SRM 972 Vitamin D in Human Serum used in this work.
Members of the VDPP NHL Writing Committee: Mark P. Purdue, D. Michal Freedman, Susan M. Gapstur, Kathy J. Helzlsouer, Francine Laden, Unhee Lim, Gertraud Maskarinec, Nathaniel Rothman, Xiao-Ou Shu, Victoria L. Stevens, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Kimberly Bertrand, Stephanie J. Weinstein, and Patricia Hartge.
This report is based at least in part on information provided by the Maryland Cancer Registry, Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.
Dr. Ronald L. Horst is the President and Chief Executive Officer of Heartland Assays, Inc.