Drs. Lisa Gallicchio, Kathy J. Helzlsouer, and Stephanie J. Weinstein contributed equally to this work.
Author affiliations: Prevention and Research Center, Weinberg Center for Women's Health and Medicine, Mercy Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (Lisa Gallicchio, Kathy J. Helzlsouer); Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (Lisa Gallicchio, Kathy J. Helzlsouer); Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (Wong-Ho Chow, D. Michal Freedman, Patricia Hartge, Mark P. Purdue, Rachel M. Stolzenberg-Solomon, Demetrius Albanes, Kai Yu, Christian C. Abnet, Stephanie J. Weinstein); Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (Susan E. Hankinson, Shelley S. Tworoger, Francine Laden); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (Susan E. Hankinson, Francine Laden, Kimberly Bertrand); Scientific Consulting Group, Inc., Gaithersburg, Maryland (Virginia Hartmuller); Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (Chinonye Harvey); New York University Cancer Institute, New York, New York (Richard B. Hayes, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte); Department of Environmental Medicine, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, New York (Richard B. Hayes, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte; Karen L. Koenig); Heartland Assays, Inc., Ames, Iowa (Ronald L. Horst); Epidemiology Program, Cancer Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii (Laurence N. Kolonel, Lynne R. Wilkens); Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (Francine Laden); Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia (Marjorie L. McCullough); Information Management Services, Inc., Silver Spring, Maryland (Dominick Parisi, Kirk Snyder); Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (Xiao-Ou Shu, Wei Zheng); Westat, Inc., Rockville, Maryland (Arti Varanasi); Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute of Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland (Jarmo Virtamo); and Department of Epidemiology, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Shanghai, China (Yong-Bing Xiang).
This work was supported by the Extramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute (NCI) (Bethesda, Maryland) and the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NCI. The New York University Women's Health Study was supported by the NCI (grant R01 CA098661). The Health Professionals Follow-up Study and the Nurses’ Health Study were supported by the NCI (grants P01 CA055075, P01 CA87969, R01 CA49449, and R01 CA082838). The Multiethnic Cohort Study was supported by the NCI (grants R37 CA54281, P01 CA33619, R01 CA063464, and N01-PC35137). The Shanghai Men's Health Study was supported by the NCI (grant R01 CA82729). The Shanghai Women's Health Study was supported by the NCI (grants R37 CA70867 and N02-CP-11010-66). The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial was supported by contracts from the NCI to the University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado (grant N01-CN-25514); Georgetown University, Washington, DC (grant N01-CN-25522); the Pacific Health Research Institute, Honolulu, Hawaii (grant N01-CN-25515); the Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (grant N01-CN-25512); the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (grant N01-CN-25513); Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (grant NO1-CN-25516); the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (grant N01-CN-25511); the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (grant N01-CN-25524); the Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, Marshfield, Wisconsin (grant N01-CN-25518); the University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama (grant NO1-CN-75022); Westat, Inc., Rockville, Maryland (grant N01-CN-25476); and the University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (grant NO1-CN-25404). The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study was supported by funding provided by the Intramural Research Program of the NCI and US Public Health Service contracts (grants N01-CN-45165, N01-RC-45035, and N01-RC-37004). CLUE was supported by the National Institute on Aging (grant U01 AG018033) and the NCI (grant R01 CA105069 and K07 CA73790). The participation of CLUE investigators was also supported by an NCI contract awarded to Mercy Medical Center through the University of Hawaii (Honolulu, Hawaii). The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort was supported by the American Cancer Society (Atlanta, Georgia).
The authors thank Dr. Karen Phinney of the National Institute of Standards and Technology for providing the Vitamin D in Human Serum (SRM 972) used in this work.
This paper is based, at least in part, on information provided by the Maryland Cancer Registry, Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.
Dr. Ronald L. Horst is the president and chief executive officer of Heartland Assays, Inc. (Ames, Iowa).