The participation rate was 68%, for a total of 162 subjects. Nonparticipation was mostly due to the patients and their proxies being unreachable (58 of 77); refusals were rare (6 of 77).
The average age of subjects was 28.6 years, and their median age was 21 years (range <1–85); 45.1% were male. There were seven deaths, including three among diabetic subjects. A history of diabetes was reported for 13.6% (22 of 162), 5.6% (9 of 162) for type 1 diabetes, and 8.0% (13 of 162) for type 2 diabetes. Based on population rates, a total of 7.10 diabetic subjects would have been expected, yielding a prevalence ratio of 3.10 (22/7.1) with a 95% CI from 2.04 to 4.71 (11
ICU admission was required for 19.1% (31 of 162) of patients. Of these, 32.3% (10 of 31) were diabetic, whereas among the non-ICU patients the diabetic proportion was 9.2% (12 of 131) (Fisher exact test, P = 0.002). Only two patient characteristics, age and chronic cardiac disease, were associated with both diabetes and ICU admission. Not associated with ICU admission were sex, pregnancy at time of infection, a history of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a history of any other chronic disease, level of schooling, occupational category, country of birth (Canada vs. other), smoking, BMI, immunosuppression, previous immunization against seasonal influenza, antiviral treatment, and delay between symptom onset and hospitalization.
shows the associations between ICU admission and combinations of risk factors. The odds ratio (OR) for diabetes in model 4 shows that, by itself, diabetes increased the risk of ICU admission 4.72 times, and the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 4.29 in model 1 shows that the increase is largely independent of differences in age and chronic cardiac disease between patients with and without diabetes. Type of diabetes had no effect on the OR: type 1 diabetes OR 4.53 (95% CI 1.12–18.3), type 2 diabetes OR 4.86 (95% CI 1.49–15.9). Controlling for age (associated with type) did not substantially alter these ORs.
Characteristics of hospitalized patients admitted to an ICU compared to those who were not