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Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptHHS Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
 
From:
Psychosom Med. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2010 June 18.
Published in final edited form as:
Psychosom Med. 2008 May; 70(4): 410–416.
doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e31816fdf21

TABLE 1

Sample Characteristics

MeasureTotal SampleBlackWhite/Asian
Total, n (%)18777 (41.2)110 (58.8)
Men, n (%)99 (53)33 (43.0)66 (60.0)
Age, mean ± SD59.5 ± 7.258.7 ± 7.160.1 ± 7.2
Body mass index, mean ± SD29.4 ± 5.031.2 ± 5.228.2 ± 4.5
Taking cardiac/hypertensive medications, n (%)a50 (26.7)22 (28.6)28 (25.5)
Years education, n (%)
 High school or less31 (16.6)16 (20.8)15 (13.6)
 Some college, no degree31 (16.6)18 (23.4)13 (11.8)
 Other degree, non-4 yr (vocational/technical, associate)31 (16.6)17 (22.1)14 (12.7)
 4-yr. degree39 (20.9)14 (18.2)25 (22.7)
 Advanced degree55 (29.4)12 (15.6)43 (39)
Annual income, n (%)b
 <$20,00030 (16.9)22 (29.7)8 (7.8)
 $20,000–<$40,00051 (28.8)25 (33.8)26 (25.2)
 $40,000–<$80,00064 (36.2)23 (31.1)41 (39.8)
 ≥$80,00032 (17.1)4 (5.4)28 (27.2)
Psychosocial factors and health behaviors
 CES-D, mean ± SD9.8 ± 9.58.7 ± 8.610.6 ± 10.0
 STAI, mean ± SD6.0 ± 5.15.7 ± 4.96.3 ± 5.3
 Ho, mean ± SD8.5 ± 4.38.9 ± 4.48.3 ± 4.2
 Ongoing problems, mean ± SD12.9 ± 3.914.0 ± 4.312.1 ± 3.3
 Physical activity rating, mean ± SD7.8 ± 6.65.9 ± 6.19.2 ± 6.5
 Alcoholic drinks consumed, mean ± SD4.8 ± 8.23.6 ± 7.45.6 ± 8.7
 Current smokers, n (%)19 (10.2)12 (15.6)7 (6.4)

The income categories, <$10,000 and $10,000–<$20,000, and the education categories, Master’s degree and advanced degree, were assessed separately but combined in the table for ease of presentation.

aThis category includes those cardiac/hypertensive medications that were associated with two or more sleep outcomes.
bTen participants failed to report annual income (n = 3 for Blacks and n = 7 for Whites/Asians).

SD = standard deviation; CES-D = Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale; STAI = Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory; Ho = Cook-Medley Hostility Scale.