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Logo of annbotAboutAuthor GuidelinesEditorial BoardAnnals of Botany
Ann Bot. Jun 2010; 105(7): 1141–1157.
Published online Mar 18, 2010. doi:  10.1093/aob/mcq028
PMCID: PMC2887065
Nitrogen uptake, assimilation and remobilization in plants: challenges for sustainable and productive agriculture
Céline Masclaux-Daubresse,* Françoise Daniel-Vedele, Julie Dechorgnat, Fabien Chardon, Laure Gaufichon, and Akira Suzuki
Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin (IJPB) UMR 1318, INRA 78026 Versailles Cedex, France
*For correspondence. E-mail masclaux/at/
Received September 22, 2009; Revised November 13, 2009; Accepted December 17, 2009.
Productive agriculture needs a large amount of expensive nitrogenous fertilizers. Improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of crop plants is thus of key importance. NUE definitions differ depending on whether plants are cultivated to produce biomass or grain yields. However, for most plant species, NUE mainly depends on how plants extract inorganic nitrogen from the soil, assimilate nitrate and ammonium, and recycle organic nitrogen. Efforts have been made to study the genetic basis as well as the biochemical and enzymatic mechanisms involved in nitrogen uptake, assimilation, and remobilization in crops and model plants. The detection of the limiting factors that could be manipulated to increase NUE is the major goal of such research.
An overall examination of the physiological, metabolic, and genetic aspects of nitrogen uptake, assimilation and remobilization is presented in this review. The enzymes and regulatory processes manipulated to improve NUE components are presented. Results obtained from natural variation and quantitative trait loci studies are also discussed.
This review presents the complexity of NUE and supports the idea that the integration of the numerous data coming from transcriptome studies, functional genomics, quantitative genetics, ecophysiology and soil science into explanatory models of whole-plant behaviour will be promising.
Keywords: Nitrogen use efficiency, remobilization, quantitative trait loci, natural variation, nitrate transporter, ammonium assimilation, glutamine synthetase, leaf senescence, nutrient recycling
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