Table shows the sociodemographics of the 1,704 respondents by geographic areas. The mean age was 45.9 years (Standard Deviation [SD] =11.2); 56% were females. Most (98%) were foreign-born, with 80% having been US residents for >10 years; 72% spoke Vietnamese fluently. Nearly 85% had health insurance, and 71%, a regular physician. Compared to Northern California respondents, DC respondents were more likely to be male, highly educated, employed, and to have a higher income and a regular physician.
Characteristics of Vietnamese American Respondents in Northern California and Washington, DC Areas, 2007–08
Hepatitis B-related beliefs, knowledge, and behaviors for the entire sample are shown in Table . Of all respondents, 17.7% reported a family history of hepatitis B and 61.6% reported having had a hepatitis B test. Among those who reported having received a test, 4.5% reported that they still had HBV, 67.6% reported they did not have it, 16.3% reported they were immune to it, 4.5% reported that they had it but were no longer infectious, and 7.1% did not know their results.
Hepatitis B-related Behaviors, Knowledge, Beliefs, and Communication with Others among Vietnamese American Respondents, 2007–08
Only 26.5% had been vaccinated against hepatitis B. Most (91.8%) believed that hepatitis B can be fatal. Few (14.6%) believed that it was untreatable, and 38.7% thought that people avoided those infected with hepatitis B. Half (52.7%) knew that HBV infection could be lifelong, and most knew that it could cause cancer (81.1%). Knowledge about some correct modes of transmission was moderate to high: 84.6% knew about sharing needles; 68.2%, about sharing toothbrushes; and 77%, about childbirth. However, only 54.3% knew about sexual intercourse as a mode of transmission. Knowledge about the incorrect modes of transmission was less, with 46.7% knowing that HBV was not acquired by smoking cigarettes, 47.8%, not from someone who sneezes, and 32.8%, not from sharing food or eating utensils. Two-thirds (68.8%) knew that someone who appeared healthy could transmit HBV. The mean knowledge score (range 0-8) was 4.8 (SD
1.7). Approximately 45% reported having discussed hepatitis B with their family members or friends, 40% reported their physicians recommended testing, and 36% reported asking their physicians for testing.
Northern California respondents were more likely than DC respondents to report having had a family history of HBV (20.6% vs. 14.8%, p
0.01) and having had a hepatitis B test (65.3% vs. 57.7%, p
0.01) but not for hepatitis B vaccination (26.9% vs. 26.0%, p
0.75). There were no differences in beliefs and knowledge, except Northern California respondents were slightly more likely to think that people avoided those who had hepatitis B (41.1% vs. 36.3%, p
0.04) and less likely to know that HBV cannot be transmitted by smoking cigarettes (43.6% vs. 49.8%, p
0.01). More Northern California than DC respondents reported that their physicians had recommended testing (44.9% vs. 35.8%, p
0.01), and that they had asked their physicians for testing (39.4% vs. 33.0%, p
Table shows the multivariable model for hepatitis B test receipt among all respondents. Sociodemographic factors significantly associated with self-report of hepatitis B testing included being in Northern California (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.37, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.05, 1.77), aged 30-49 (OR 0.68, CI 0.52, 0.90), speaking Vietnamese less than fluently (OR 0.68, CI 0.51, 0.90), having lived in the US >10 years (OR 0.66, CI 0.47, 0.93). Those reporting a lower household income were less likely to report hepatitis B testing. Sex, marital status, and education were not associated with testing. Among health and health care variables, only reporting a hepatitis B vaccination was associated with testing (OR 1.86, CI 1.35, 2.55).
Multivariable Model of Self-Reported Hepatitis B Test Receipt among Vietnamese American Respondents in Northern California and Washington, DC Area, 2007-08
One belief about HBV was associated with testing—those who believed that people could die from HBV were less likely to have been tested (OR 0.47, CI 0.30, 0.75). Knowledge variables were not associated with testing; transmission knowledge score had a borderline significant association (OR 1.05, CI 0.97, 1.14). In an exploratory model that did not include the communication variables (data not shown), transmission knowledge score was associated with testing (OR 1.15, CI 1.07, 1.23). When we added the communication variables successively, the transmission knowledge score remained significant until respondent request for hepatitis B testing was added.
In the full model in Table , those who had discussed hepatitis B testing with family or friends (OR 1.34, CI 1.01, 1.78) and those whose employer had requested that they be tested (OR 2.05, CI 1.09, 3.87) were more likely to have had testing. Physician recommendation for hepatitis B testing was strongly associated with test receipt (OR 4.46, CI 3.36, 5.93). Respondent request for hepatitis B testing was also strongly associated with test receipt (OR 8.37, CI 5.95, 11.78).