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Biol Lett. Jun 23, 2010; 6(3): 406–409.
Published online Jan 24, 2010. doi:  10.1098/rsbl.2009.1073
PMCID: PMC2880068
Antennal regulation of migratory flight in the neotropical moth Urania fulgens
Sanjay P. Sane,1* Robert B. Srygley,2 and Robert Dudley2,3
1National Center for Biological Sciences, TIFR, GKVK Campus, Bangalore, India
2Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Apartado 0843-03092, Balboa, Republic of Panama
3Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94710, USA
*Author for correspondence (sane/at/ncbs.res.in).
Present address: USDA-Agricultural Research Service, 1500 North Central Avenue, Sidney, MT 59270, USA.
Received December 14, 2009; Accepted February 4, 2010.
Abstract
Migrating insects use their sensory systems to acquire local and global cues about their surroundings. Previous research on tethered insects suggests that, in addition to vision and cephalic bristles, insects use antennal mechanosensory feedback to maintain their airspeeds. Owing to the large displacements of migratory insects and difficulties inherent in tracking single individuals, the roles of these sensory inputs have never been tested in freely migrating insects. We tracked individual uraniid moths (Urania fulgens) as they migrated diurnally over the Panama Canal, and measured airspeeds and orientation for individuals with either intact or amputated flagella. Consistent with prior observations that antennal input is necessary for flight control, 59 per cent of the experimental moths could not fly after flagella amputation. The remaining fraction (41%) was flight-capable and maintained its prior airspeeds despite severe reduction in antennal input. Thus, maintenance of airspeeds may not involve antennal input alone, and is probably mediated by other modalities. Moths with amputated flagella could not recover their proper migratory orientations, suggesting that antennal integrity is necessary for long-distance navigation.
Keywords: insect migration, antenna, flight
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