Sustained adverse interactions between neurotoxins arising from the environment, dietary and lipolytic factors, or from normal metabolism influenced by genetic factors could cause neurotoxicity. One of the common mechanisms for the induction of neurotoxicity is the overproduction of free radicals. Currently, neurorestorative treatment is not available in modern systems of medicine, whereas there are several ayurvedic drugs which have neuroprotective effects. Howerer, there is no scientific validation for these drugs.
Figure 1 Light microscopic appearance of brain sections obtained using H and E. Microphotograph of brain of the control group; original magnification (× 40). This slide shows the structure of a normal brain; each nerve cell has a distinct nucleus surrounded (more ...)
Light microscopic appearance of brain sections obtained using H and E. Microphotograph of brain of the Ksheerabala group; original magnification (× 40); the cells were almost similar to that of the control
Figure 3 Light microscopic appearance of brain sections obtained using H and E. Microphotograph of brain of the quinolinic acid group; original magnification (× 40). Nerve cells of this slide have undergone degeneration; increased vacuolization can also (more ...)
Light microscopic appearance of brain sections obtained using H and E. Microphotograph of brain of the Ksheerabala + quinolinic acid group; original magnification (× 40); the cells were almost normal
is an ayurvedic drug used to treat arthritis, central nervous system disorders, and insomnia. The main contents of Ksheerabala
are Bala (Sida cordifolia
(cow's milk), and Thilathaila
(Sesamum oil). The textual reference of Ksheerabala
is found in Ashtangahridaya
is a herb from the Malvaceae
family that is used widely in ayurvedic medicine. Studies conducted by Auddy et al
] on the antioxidant activity of three Indian medicinal plants used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases showed that Sida cordifolia
had more potent antioxidant activity than the other herbs. Studies conducted by Dhalwal et al
] also showed that Sida cordifolia
is a potential source of natural antioxidants.
There are also reports that milk caseins possess significant antioxidant activity.[4
] Studies conducted by Korpela et al
] have shown that cow's milk had both peroxyl radical-trapping capacity and superoxide radical-trapping capacity.
Sesame oil is derived from the plant species, Sesamum indicum
] and contains several antioxidants[7
] including sesamin,[8
] tocopherol, sesamolin,[9
] and sesaminol. Sesame oil enhances hepatic detoxification of chemicals, reduces the incidence of chemically induced mammary tumors, and protects against oxidative stress.[10
] Sesame oil is regarded as a daily supplement to increase cell resistance to lipid peroxidation.[11
] Other investigators have also demonstrated the significant neuroprotective activity of sesame oil.[12
] Sesame oil modulates oxidative stress and antioxidant status against Fe- induced oxidative damage.[13
] Suja et al
] conducted studies on the antiradical effectiveness of sesame antioxidants, namely, sesamol, lignans, and lignan glycosides isolated from sesame cake extract, and found that all these compounds possessed radical-scavenging activity.
Quinolinic acid is an endogenous neurotoxin that is involved in various neurological disorders. It is used to produce a pharmacological model of Huntington's disease in rats and primates, and has been shown to evoke N
-methyl-D-aspartate receptor overactivation and oxidative stress.[15
] Quinolinic acid has been shown to produce a wide variety of toxic effects in the brain, such as depletion of GABA, excessive increases in cytosolic Ca2+
concentration, ATP exhaustion, neuronal oxidative stress, and cell death,[16
] Quinolinic acid toxicity can also result in caspase-3-like activation and DNA fragmentation.[19
A review of literature shows that ingredients of Ksheerabala have antioxidant properties. One of the mechanisms for the induction of neurotoxicity is through the generation of free radicals. In this study, we have taken quinolinic acid- induced oxidative stress in rat brain as a model system to validate the action of this drug and study its mechanism of action.