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The microenvironment of dystrophic muscles is associated with variation in levels of markers of degeneration and regeneration. Markers of degeneration can be measured in terms of apoptosis and apoptosis gene expression, while markers of regeneration can be measured in terms of cytokine and growth factors. The present study is an attempt to demonstrate the extent of degeneration and regeneration in DMD pathogenesis. The levels of Fas and FasL and Bax/Bcl-2 and plasma of DNA fragmentation as markers of apoptosis were measured. Also Cytokine tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF, TNF-ά), as well as the growth factors basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured as markers of regeneration. Results indicate that Fas/FasL and Bax/Bcl-2 are involved in muscle atrophy and degeneration in DMD patients, while the regeneration process does not cope with the degeneration.