provides distributional information related to both the psychiatric nurses and the hospitals included in this study. The 353 psychiatric nurses studied had the following means: 45 years of age, 16 years of experience as a registered nurse, 13 years at their current hospital, and almost 7 years on their current psychiatric unit. Less than half of the psychiatric nurses (46%) worked full-time and over a third (40%) held a baccalaureate degree in nursing. Only 8% of the nurses were male. All hospitals were general hospitals with at least six licensed beds dedicated to psychiatric care, and more than half of the hospitals had between 100 and 250 beds. Forty-six percent of the hospitals were categorized as teaching hospitals with high technology.
Psychiatric Nurse and Hospital Characteristics
provides measures of internal consistency, Cronbach’s alpha, for the instruments used in the study; all values are well above the acceptable reliability value of 0.70. also provides descriptive statistics in terms of means and standard deviations for the continuous PES-NWI subscale measures, the staffing ratio, the composite score of PES-NWI, and the three subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Bivariate Pearson correlation coefficients are also provided. The bivariate correlations suggest that the organizational factors (Foundations, Management, RN-MD Relations, and Staffing) are strongly correlated with Affairs. This suggests that the PES-NWI subscale measures and the staffing variable should be analyzed in separate general regression models. The examination of the bivariate linear relationships among organizational factors, staffing, and MBI measures revealed that all independent measures were statistically correlated with emotional exhaustion; similarly, with the exception of staffing, all independent measures were correlated statistically with depersonalization. None of the independent measures were correlated with personal accomplishment. All the bivariate relationships were in the expected direction.
provides results from unadjusted and adjusted general regression models for the three burnout outcome variables. With the exception of nurse participation in hospital affairs and staffing, the adjusted models for emotional exhaustion were consistent with the simple unadjusted models. Nurse participation was significantly associated with emotional exhaustion in the unadjusted models but became non-significant after adjusting for nurse characteristics (baccalaureate degree and years of experience) and hospital characteristics (bed size, teaching status, high technology). Patient to nurse staffing ratio was marginally associated with emotional exhaustion in the unadjusted models and became statistically significant at the p = 0.047 level when nurse and hospital characteristics were added in the adjusted models. Regressing depersonalization on the organizational factors of the NPE and staffing in separate models yielded similar results in both unadjusted and adjusted models. Depersonalization had a significant association with the composite PES-NWI score, manager skill, and nurse-physician relationship. Neither the organizational factors of the NPE or staffing were associated with personal accomplishment in either the unadjusted or adjusted models.
Adjusted and Unadjusted Regression Coefficient Indicating the Effect of Organizational Factors on Burnout in Psychiatric Nurses