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Cardiopulm Phys Ther J. 2008 December; 19(4): 142–144.
PMCID: PMC2845236

Cardiovascular & Pulmonary Section Educational Programming

Tuesday – 2/10/09

10:30 – 12:30 pm

Promoting Health and Fitness For Obese Adults Via Group Exercise Formats

Speakers: Susan Deusinger and Tamara Burlis

DESCRIPTION: The prevalence of obesity across all segments of American society has become one of the most significant public health challenges of the twenty-first century. The burden imposed by obesity on health, functional independence, quality of life and even longevity should serve as a catalyst for action by all health professionals. Physical therapists must be prepared to address obesity as a primary diagnosis as well as a secondary condition that undoubtedly affects the outcomes for any patient presenting for intervention by PT. Specific strategies must be developed to promote lasting new physical activity and exercise habits in individuals who have been traditionally sedentary. This interactive session will focus on developing group approaches that promote improved movement and function and that are motivating and fun for obese adults. Participants will collaborate on planning creative approaches that promote long term adherence and translation of new lifestyle commitments. Case studies will be utilized to reinforce concepts.


  • Understand the prevalence and implications of obesity for health and function.
  • Design appropriate screening, examination and group exercise interventions to enhance health and functional abilities of obese adults.
  • Create educational approaches to enhance exercise interventions and promote long term adherence to physically active lifestyles.

12:30PM – 2:30 pm

Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Research Update-The Year (2008) in Review.

Speaker: Lawrence Cahalin

DESCRIPTION: An interactive review of cardiovascular and pulmonary research published in 2008 which has clinical implications for physical therapy examination and management. The review will focus on the methods and results of the reviewed literature to facilitate a better understanding of the results as presented by the original authors in their tables and figures.


  • Identify and discuss the clinical implications of key cardiovascular and pulmonary research published in 2008.
  • Familiarize physical therapists with different methods that the results of cardiovascular and pulmonary research can be presented and interpreted.
  • Improve a physical therapists understanding of research by highlighting various methods and results found in the reviewed literature.
  • Attempt to make research more clinically applicable by discussing the methods and results as well as clinical implications of the reviewed literature.

2:30PM – 4:00PM

The 2009 Linda Crane Memorial Lecture Award “The Patient Puzzle: Piecing it Together”

Speaker: Mary Massery

DESCRIPTION: When the APTA achieves its 2020 vision, physical therapists will be autonomous practitioners and the practitioners of choice for motor impairments. As a profession, are we ready to take on the diagnostic role? The speaker will present the diagnostic puzzle, composed of many pieces, each being important to the full patient picture. She will incorporate the obvious “pieces”: the musculoskeletal and neuromuscular systems, but she will challenge therapists to add the less obvious “pieces” to every motor evaluation and examination: the cardiovascular/pulmonary, integument/fascial, and internal organs systems, in order to discriminate between the cause and the consequence of the impairment. She will argue that the cardiovascular/pulmonary system is the thread that ties the puzzle together and should be an integral part of every motor assessment from the head down to the toes.


  • Present a broader view of motor assessment that systematically includes the whole body, looking beyond the obvious musculoskeletal and neuromuscular systems.
  • Discuss the role of the cardiovascular/pulmonary, integument/fascial, and internal organs systems in the assessment of motor dysfunction.
  • State the case that multi-system evaluations should be the standard of practice for a profession that desires to develop competent, autonomous practitioners who are truly ready to be the practitioners of choice in the future.

Wednesday – 2/11/09

8:00 – 11:00 am; 1:00 – 3:00 pm

Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Research Platform Presentations

Moderator: Christine Wilson

8:00 – 10:00 am

Using case studies to understand the usefulness of cardiovascular and pulmonary diagnostic imaging. Speaker: Julie Starr

DESCRIPTION: The most often used cardiovascular studies are EKG exercise tests, pharmacologic stress tests, radionuclide studies (thallium and sestamibi), and resting and stress echocardiography. These tests basically look at the functioning of the myocardium. What is the difference between these tests? Is one a better test than another? What are the sensitivities and specificities of these tests? Does underlying pathology make a difference?

The most often used pulmonary studies are exercise tests using ventilatory measurements and endpoints, pulmonary function tests, and 6 minute walk tests. These tests look at a variety of variables. What is the best use of these tests? What do I do with this information?

This presentation will use a variety of cardiovascular and pulmonary case studies to highlight the importance of and the differences between cardiovascular and pulmonary diagnostic imaging and functional assessment tests and measures.


  • Describe the common modes of diagnostic imaging and tests used in patients with cardiovascular and pulmonary diagnoses.
  • Discuss the rationale behind the selection of different cardiovascular and pulmonary imaging modalities.
  • Integrate results of history, systems review, and examination in order to determine the results of a diagnostic test.
  • Identify and describe the link between the cardiovascular and pulmonary test results, physical therapy examination and their influence on physical therapy treatment.

1:00 – 3:00 pm

An Overview of Objective Measures for the Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Patient

Speakers: Kristin Lefebvre, Kim Herbertson, Aliah Keirsey, Terri A. Anderson, and Heather N. Wnorowski.

DESCRIPTION: Currently, many physical therapists use nonspecific quality of life objective assessments, such as the SF-36, as measures of patient progress and response to physical therapy intervention. However, there are many objective measures available to specifically measure clinically significant differences among individuals with cardiovascular conditions such as peripheral vascular disease, heart failure, coronary artery disease and respiratory disease. The focus of this presentation is to provide an overview of quality of life objective measures specific to cardiovascular and pulmonary patient. The overview for each assessment tool will include instructions for test performance, an indication of the time it takes to perform each test, the intended population, the significant findings, the minimal clinically important difference (MCID), the reliability, validity and internal consistency and suggested uses in the clinic. The outline for this presentation is based on Research Corner: Revisiting Outcomes Assessment by Susan Scherer (2007) from the Cardiopulmonary Physical Therapy Journal.

The following tools will be discussed and analyzed during this presentation:

Ankle Brachial Index

Walking Impairment Questionnaire

Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire

The University of California: San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire

The Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire

The Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire

The Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire

The Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire

The Seattle Angina Questionnaire

The Heart Surgery Symptoms Survey


  • Identify appropriate screening tools to use for specific cardiopulmonary disorders.
  • Understand how to implement the use of cardiovascular screening tools in physical therapy practice and research.
  • Understand how cardiovascular and pulmonary objective quality of life measures can benefit clinical decision making.
  • Compare non-specific and disease specific quality of life questionnaires for their effectiveness.
  • Understand the importance of using these screening tools in all areas clinical practice, including geriatrics, outpatient, home care, inpatient rehabilitation and acute care.

Thursday – 2/12/09

8:00 – 11:00 am

Fitness/Aerobic Endurance Testing: a Case Based Approach

Speaker: Steve Tepper

DESCRIPTION: Fitness or aerobic endurance is correlated with longevity, reduced risk of many diseases and disorders, and functional independence. Submaximal testing of patient/clients reveals peak fitness or aerobic capacity level. Other submaximal tests reveal the patient/clients performance as compared to other individuals. Endurance tests of 1- or ½ mile walk tests, six minute walk test, shuttle test and others will be covered. Usefulness for each of the tests will be covered in a patient/client case based approach. Cases to be covered will include: 1) a young obese client with low back pain and a strong family history of cardiovascular disease, 2) a patient in end stage chronic heart failure, 3) a patient with cystic fibrosis, & 4) an older (89 years old when tested) client who wishes to improve her fitness.


  • Compare various fitness/aerobic endurance tests
  • Utilize spreadsheets to allow for objective assessment of fitness/aerobic endurance at baseline and following interventions
  • Compare ways to improve the reliability and or validity of each of the fitness/aerobic endurance tests

1:00 – 5:00 pm

The Diffuse Effects of Diabetes From the Cellular to the Population Level: Implications for Physical Therapists

Speakers: Michael Mueller, Jennifer Brach, Todd Cade, Rhea Cohn, David Sinacore, Lisa Stehno-Bittle

DESCRIPTION: This session will complement the Special Series on Diabetes published in PTJ in late 2008/early 2009. Diabetes is acknowledged as an epidemic in the United States and has profound health implications. The content of this session will provide background to help physical therapists understand how diabetes affects every cell type and system in the body. Basic pathophysiology of the disease will be presented along with specific evidence-based practice approaches to help physical therapists effectively manage their patients with diabetes.


  • Outline the scope of the problem of diabetes in health care and the complications of diabetes most commonly encountered by physical therapists.
  • Describe the normal and deviant endocrine functions of fat cells and how exercise can reverse some deviant signaling perpetrated by excess fat.
  • Describe briefly the pathophysiology of micro- and macro-vasculature complications of diabetes.
  • Identify clinical tests to screen for peripheral vascular disease and for cardio-autonomic dysfunction in patients with diabetes.
  • Recognize the most common joints affected by limited joint mobility in people with diabetes.
  • Identify the signs and symptoms of acute Charcot arthropathy.
  • Describe the key risk factors for developing skin breakdown in people with diabetes.
  • List 3 specific considerations in managing plantar ulcers or acute Charcot arthropathy in people with diabetes.
  • Understand the physiological and functional changes in skeletal muscle as a result of diabetes and peripheral neuropathy.
  • Identify current trends in health insurance coverage along with challenges and opportunities that exist for physical therapists.

Articles from Cardiopulmonary Physical Therapy Journal are provided here courtesy of Cardiopulmonary Physical Therapy Section of the American Physical Therapy Association