Passive constraint is used to prevent left ventricular (LV) dilation and subsequent remodeling. However, there has been concern about the effect of passive constraint on diastolic LV chamber stiffness and pump function. This study determined the relationship between constraint, diastolic wall stress, chamber stiffness and pump function. We tested the hypothesis that passive constraint at 3 mmHg reduces wall stress with minimal change in pump function.
“A 3-dimensional finite element model of the globally dilated LV based on LV dimensions obtained in dogs that had undergone serial intracoronary microsphere injection was created. The model was adjusted to match experimentally observed end-diastolic LV volume and mid-ventricular wall thickness. The experimental results used to create the model were previously reported.
A pressure of 3, 5, 7, and 9 mmHg was applied to the epicardium. Fiber stress, end-diastolic pressure volume relationship (EDPVR), end-systolic pressure volume relationship (ESPVR) and the stroke volume end-diastolic pressure (Starling) relationship were calculated.”
As epicardial constraint pressure increased, fiber stress decreased, the EDPVR shifted to the left and the Starling relationship shifted down and to the right. The ESPVR did not change. A constraining pressure of 2.3 mm Hg was associated with a 10% reduction in stroke volume and mean end-diastolic fiber stress was reduced by 18.3% (Inner wall), 15.3% (Mid wall), and 14.2% (Outer wall).
Both stress and cardiac output decrease in a linear fashion as the amount of passive constraint is increased. If the reduction in cardiac output is to be less than 10%, passive constraint should not exceed 2.3 mmHg. On the other hand, this amount of constraint may be sufficient to reverse eccentric hypertrophy after myocardial infarction.
Keywords: Passive constraint device, wall stress, pump function